It is impossible to get the figures for an exact estimate of the total amount of subscriptions of Negroes to Liberty Bonds. From individual records like those which follow, it has been estimated that Negroes contributed to the Liberty Loans and War Work Drives more than $250,000,000, an average of about $25 for every Negro man, woman, and child in the United States. Secretary McAdoo of the United States Treasury made public acknowledgment of the whole-souled cooperation of the Negro people throughout the country1 in connection with the effort of raising liberty loans.2 There were many Negroes of small means whose gifts, though not large in amounts, represented the spirit of readiness to give their all for liberty and democracy for which they believe their country stands. Mary Smith, a Negro cook in Memphis, Tenn., was approached by her mistress with a request to buy a $100 bond. She replied: "I don't want no little hundred dollar bond, I want a thousand dollar bond and I'll pay cash for it." This sum represented her lifetime savings. Richard Priestly, a Negro farmer in Georgia who had sent two sons to the War, bought a thousand dollar bond and thus put fresh spirit into the local campaign.

1 See Scott, E. J., work cited, p. 358.

2 Figures taken mainly from the Negro Year Book, pp. 45-50.

Thomas Brown, an ex-slave, living in Texas, seventy-five years old, accumulated $50 as a wood chopper and doing chores and invested in a Liberty Bond. A nine year old boy of San Antonio, Texas, saved more than five thousand pennies and invested them in a Liberty Bond. Negro women in a tobacco factory in Norfolk, Va., were reported to have subscribed $91,000 to Liberty Bonds.

The North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company purchased over $300,000 of bonds and thrift stamps. The Standard Life Insurance Company of Atlanta invested $50,000 in bonds; the Atlanta Insurance Company, $52,000, and the United Insurance Company of New Orleans, $10,000.

Following the Third Liberty Loan Drive, the United States Treasury Department awarded first place among all the banks of the United States to a Negro bank, the Mutual Savings Bank, Portsmouth, Va., which was given a quota of $5,700 to raise, but raised a total of over $100,000 or nearly twenty times the stipulated amount.

The importance of the Negro people in helping to conserve food was recognized by Mr. Herbert Hoover, Director of the Food Administration. The Negro Division was organized in his Educational Department, first under Mr. A. U. Craig and later under Mr. Ernest T. Atwell. These gentlemen succeeded in lining up 10,-000,000 Negroes in the United States who responded heartily to the call to conserve and save food. In every state where there was a considerable Negro population, there were Negro assistants associated with the state food directors.