1The biological basis of mutual aid or cooperation has been treated by several writers of scientific standing. Henry Drum-mond in his Ascent of Man was one of the first Kropotkin, the Russian, has written extensively on cooperation among lower animals. Vernon Kellogg has recently stated this idea admirably in an article, "The Biologist Speaks of Death," in the Atlantic Monthly, June, 1921. The writings of many others have given us ample biological ground for our view of human mutual aid.

Race prejudices, frictions, fears, suspicions, and antagonisms cannot be attacked in the abstract and in general. They die and decay in the face of pleasant experience during the contacts of individuals and groups of the two races as they strive in "the regular go of things" of daily life. In factories and in the fields where produce follows labor; in the schools and colleges where children and youths are trained; in the courts and other departments of the commonwealth where citizens adjust their differences; in the home where parents and children nurture the common heritage of personal habits, traditions, and customs; in the Church, where justice, mercy, and communion with Jehovah are visioned; in the contacts and experiences, pleasurable or painful, in the routine of life, - hostile feelings, prejudiced beliefs and attitudes, unfounded fears and groundless suspicions are aroused and nourished or are removed and replaced by pleasant sensations, by friendly feeling, by mutual understanding, and by cooperative good-will. The appreciation of the likenesses in each race on both sides of the racial line and friendly habits of action come in this way.

Fair play and friendly action will follow the consciousness of common likeness just as friction and fear have been the results of emphasis on racial differences. No reasonable person will deny that racial fears, prejudices, and suspicions are founded upon either real differences, upon misapprehension born of the imagination or are produced by ignorance. These differences, real or unreal, reside either in the conflicting interests of individuals, races, and groups or within the people themselves. Racial differences between groups have so far been proved only in outward appearances, like the different national styles of dress or color of skin. If fundamental, there are group differences of interest like the competition of nations for political power that has led to war between nations, or the conflict of merchants for trade that has led to trade war.1

1McDougall, William, An Introduction to Social Psychology. Section II, pp. 271-358; Pillsbury, W. B., The Psychology of Nationality and Internationalism, pp. 21-62, 186-223, 278-309.

2 Ross, E. A., Principles of Sociology, pp. 96-120, 194-268; Maciver, R. M., The Elements of Social Science, pp. 1-11.

Slowly the telephone, the telegraph, the steamship, and many other inventions are bringing people together in such wise that men and women are finding that they are fundamentally in themselves very much alike. They are born, they hunger, they love, they hate, they cooperate; they fight, they propagate, they grow old, and they die. As the means of communication have been multiplied, conflicts of interests also have been emphasized. So long as groups and races retain the old ideas, notions, attitudes, and ways, they remain apart. And just so long will old fears, prejudices, and suspicions keep alive. Truly the avenues through which pleasurable contacts may be made that create new attitudes and ways, give the spirit of brotherhood the opportunity to operate. A rapid description of the avenues comprised in our principal organizations and types of volunteer agencies will make clear their utility for such contacts.

The family and home as avenues of pleasurable contacts. The Negro home as discussed in Chapter II (Sixty Years Of Progress) showed the long march to the present Negro home life from the slave cabin family, the members of which could be separated at any moment by the wish or the death or the business failure of the owner. It is viewed in this chapter from the side of the family circle as a source of good-will in race relations.

1 See Appendix for the question of mental capacity of the Negro.

The home is the abiding place of the family and the bulwark of the highest and dearest in modern life. The family institution and its castle, the home, require that the marriage bond of the two whom law and religion unite as one for better or for worse even unto death, be protected by both the Church and the State in their most sacred obligation. The husband and father has the responsibility of providing support for the family according to a standard of living in keeping with the relation of the family to the general welfare. The feelings and customs of the community and the nation should make it possible for him to get work, to hold it, and to be advanced in position and pay unhampered by creed or color. The handicaps of the Negro family in this respect have been touched upon in Chapters II and III. The wife and mother should have support and shelter, that she may bear and bless with loving hands and heart-throbs the little ones who pass that way into the work-a-day world. Her time and mind should be entirely freed from bread-winning, that she may have strength, leisure, and renewal of spirit for the nurture of the young. The Negro mother has the heaviest burden to bear of any mother in America. Three times as many Negro married women as white women were gainfully employed in 1910.

The children need food and clothing, plenty of each, and the shelter that protects both health and morals. They require freedom from premature toil, affording time to grow, chances to learn, places to play, opportunity to feel obedience to the authority of parents, to sense the ideals of clean living, and to catch the traditions of truth and beauty and goodness as anchors when the storms of passion rise and the billows of selfishness and prejudice roll.