It should be pointed out in closing that, as a result of experiences North and South, the development of these people and the development of leadership to carry them forward during the coming years call for opportunities larger than they have had in the past. They need the following essential elements in the economic relations of Negro workers, white workers, and employers:1
(1) A fair chance in industry; to get work and to hold it upon the same terms of tenure and of wage as white workers.
-(2) The opportunity for Negro workers to be trained for and to be advanced to the more skilled and highly paid occupations, as they show equal ability to fill them. This is a reasonable, fair, and American principle which in practise will not jeopardize the white workman nor retard industry.
(3) The adjustment of the conditions of Negro tenants and farm laborers of the South, so that those whose hands produce the crops may share equitably in their bounty. This will benefit all those whose interests rest upon Southern agriculture. A fairly treated, more efficient Negro farmer and farm laborer will give more lint to the cotton mills, more seed to the oil mills, more corn for the miller, more peanuts and tobacco for the factories, more prosperity for the merchant, the industrial captain, and the banker.
(4) With the entrance of Negro women into industry, and in their relations to domestic and personal service, better treatment, training, and wages will have an effect upon every industrial plant where they are employed and upon every home where they serve. (5) The improvement of the housing and neighborhood conditions where Negro workers live will not only help the Negro workers, but add to the health and happiness of every person in the community.
1 The substance of some of these points is drawn from a Department of Labor report prepared by the author, entitled "The Negro at Work During the World War and During Reconstruction," Government Print, Washington, 1021.
(6) The white employer of Negro labor, the white worker engaged in the same occupation with the Negro, and the Negro worker himself, - the interests of all three are involved. Friendly adjustment of the labor situation will be most far reaching in bringing just and cooperative race relations. Because of his cheerful, non-militant temperament, the Negro worker can help the white employer and white worker to see that all are engaged in a joint enterprise. This may help to lead all away from the policy and theory of class war now widespread in the industrial field.
(7) The Negro wage earners furnish the backbone, economically speaking, of the progress of the whole group because the business and professional men must draw their patronage from them. They also are the main labor dependence of many communities. / Color should no longer weigh in the opportunities for entrance into industrial occupations, especially the higher and skilled occupations. Race should no longer play a part in the conditions of tenantry and the opportunities to take advantage of federal farm loans, for the purchase of land and the improvement of farm homes. The application of the Golden Rule to them would work wonders in race relations and show that the principle is truly golden.
Not only opportunities in the agricultural and industrial field, but opportunities in the intellectual, civic, moral, and spiritual fields are required if the prophecy of achievement shown by the remarkable progress of the last sixty years is to be fulfilled. The time has arrived when the color of a man's skin should no longer be an excuse for any kind of injustice to him, or a cloak for a denial of the full measure of protection, justice, and opportunity guaranteed to every American by the very fundamental law of our republic. These people need schools, set and developed upon the standards of the best that America has in its vision. They need churches, and guidance in those churches, that shall be marked by the highest type of equipment, of policy, of plans, programs, and personnel that shall make them the par of any similar facilities for the development of the moral and spiritual life of America. They ask Christian America for a new spirit, a new attitude and a new way of acting toward them in better keeping with the ideal of Christian brotherhood.