It is inevitable that the majority of the people must depend upon public funds for their common school education, consequently a larger proportion of funds should come from the public treasury than from private sources. The productive private funds for institutional education of white people in the United States were estimated in 1915 as more than fifty-three times as large as similar funds for Negro education, although the white population is less than ten times as large.

This situation is growing better, however. There are 818 counties of the South where Negroes made up one eighth or more of the total population in 1910. In 1921, there were 272 county supervising teachers paid partly by the counties and partly through the Jeanes Fund in 269 of these counties in 13 states. These "traveling teachers," supervised by the county superintendents and the state supervisor of Negro rural schools, help rural teachers, add to the teaching of the elementary branches in rural schools, encourage home industries, give simple lessons in cleanliness and sanitation, promote improvement of schoolhouses and grounds, and organize clubs for school and neighborhood improvement. The supervisors that year visited regularly 8,976 country schools for Negroes. The amount of money paid through the Jeanes Fund for salaries was $94,287, and from the public funds, $119,746. These workers raised $394,737 for school improvements largely from local Negro citizens, although there is no means of knowing exactly how much came from contributions of local Negro patrons.

The Rosenwald School Building Fund given by Julius Rosenwald, a Hebrew merchant of Chicago, provides money for erecting good school buildings in rural communities. Up to the end of 1921 there had been erected 1,005 of these school buildings at a total cost of $3,179,803. Of this amount, Negro patrons contributed more than one fourth, the Rosenwald aid nearly one fifth, and the remainder came mainly from public funds.1 The General Education Board had appropriated up to July, 1921, for endowment and operation of Negro schools of all types, $2,291,737.50.2

There is a crying need for adequate secondary and normal schools in more than 700 counties and cities of the South to provide teachers for the elementary schools. The great need for institutions of higher learning is indicated in that the most liberal estimates3 for higher institutions for Negro American youth show that there are not more than two institutions with the equipment, endowment, students, and teaching force required by the recent standard for an "efficient" college set by the Association of American colleges. Not more than thirty-six institutions can be reckoned as either first, second, or third grade in the second rank of colleges. Only two institutions offer courses in medicine, pharmacy, and den-tistry sufficient to be rated by the Association of Medical Schools. In this connection there is no more heroic and unselfish story of the Christian Church written than that of the relation of the missionary agencies to the beginning and development of Negro education. The very foundations of Negro education, both public and private, were laid and supported by the Home Mission Societies with their money, their teachers, their vision and enthusiasm, in the days before there was any sentiment for education of the Negro or any belief in his general capacity for achieving that education.

1 Almanac and Year Book, Chicago Daily News, p. 750.

2 Annual Report, 1919-20, pp. 78-88.

3 See World Survey, Interchurch World Movement, American Volume, pp. 95-98.

A conference of white and Negro educators having to do with the operation of the church boards of education of Negro denominations and with the missionary societies fostering educational work among Negroes set forth in 1920 the following as their judgment of the necessary minimum to be developed immediately from existing institutions: "(1) three 'University Centers' with well-equipped medical, religious, and graduate schools; (2) eleven institutions of standard college grade; (3) twenty-one institutions of junior college grade," and at least three hundred four-year high and secondary schools with adequate academic and vocational courses. ... At least two hundred of these should be located in rural districts. In many institutions supported by missionary funds there is joint white and Negro management and joint support. If one ever doubts that the idealism and the Christian enthusiasm of America can bridge the color line, he has only to read the story of the development of Negro education, beginning with the pioneer teachers from the North who went among the freedmen and lived and taught all that learning and character had to offer.

Probably the first man of color to graduate from a college in the United States was Lemuel Haynes, who was a soldier throughout the Revolutionary War. He afterward graduated from Yale and became a Congregational minister. He served white churches at Torrington, Conn., and Manchester, N. H., was a pioneer in home missions, and won international recognition for his sermon against "Universalism." John Brown Russworm received a degree from Bowdoin College in 1826. Theodore S. Wright graduated from Princeton Theological Seminary, and Edward Jones, from Amherst College the same year. The total number of Negro college graduates is now estimated to be more than 7,000, showing conclusively the capacity of these people. Additional educational progress of the Negro is also indicated by achievements in literature, music, and art.1