1 See Sources of Vijayanagar History, Publication by the Madras University.

2 To Mr. A. Rangaswami Sarasvati, University Research Student, now Assistant Epigraphist belongs the credit of collecting and translating these extracts.

The new provinces conquered from Kalinga or Orissa were entrusted to the Government of two nephews of the minister Timma. When Udaygiri in the Nellore district was taken from Orissa the organisation and administration, and the holding of the new conquests against attack fell to Rayasam Kondamarasayya, another Brahman. It is not exactly that other officers were not appointed or that the Brahman officers were all of them unerring. He had a number of officers who were not Brahmans but the most trusted ones among them seem to have been Brahmans. One Brahman proved false, as did one Sudra. The Brahman Vira Narasimha Raya revolted in the last year of Krishnadeva Raya; so did Nagama Nayaka of Madura. Krishna wanted that the temple management should be kept separate from the other departments of administration, for the good reason that the temple revenues were not to be mixed with the others in the administration as these were specially liable to peculation. He wanted horses and elephants kept in royal stables and superintended by royal officers, and not to be entrusted to governors which was the practice of mediaeval administration. He adopted this device as the best remedy against rebellion. According to him a king should improve the properties of his country and encourage commerce; this he tried to put into practice as did some of his predecessors and some of his successors by the treatment that they accorded to the Portuguese and to the other foreign ambassadors that came into the country for commercial purposes. When Udayagiri fell, some of the ladies of the household of the Orissa Governor, who was uncle of the king of Orissa, fell into his hands. The Portuguese Chroniclers have it on record that he treated these royal ladies in quite a kingly fashion. There is one verse of Krishna which prescribes exactly this kind of treatment. He has another reference to treatment of princes, who may become prisoners. He followed that precept into practice by what he did to the son of the Kalinga Ruler Pratapa Rudra. Prince Virabhadra was taken prisoner at Kondavidu. According to the Portuguese chronicler, Nuniz, he was made a prisoner and was insultingly asked to exhibit his swordsmanship against the professional fencer of the Court. The prince, according to this chronicler is said to have committed suicide as a result of this insult. We have records however that show that prince Virabhadra was governor of Maligabennur Sime in the Mysore state, and made a grant for the spiritual benefit of his own father and his royal master himself, there again showing that Krishna was as good as his word in regard to his precept in this particular instance as well. These few instances go to show that even the maxims of polity had considerable weight in shaping the administration of monarchs who made their mark and left their impress upon the government of the realm that came into their charge.

Thus then in matters of administration in all its branches, South India established for itself a distinct line of development which, as in other branches, have continued quite down to modern times and have been in several particulars carried down into the present day administration of the locality itself. It would require far more space to trace these in detail, but this must suffice to indicate the distinct character of South Indian administration.