"The ministers informed the king of Soli of the devastation of the city thus being made. Thereupon he inquired of Gajaba, "is the Sinhalese host come to destroy this city."

1 Yalpanapattanam, or Jaffnapatam, modern Jaffna.

Gajaba replied "I have a little boy who accompanied me; there is no army," and caused the giant Nila to be brought and made to stand by his side. Thereupon the king of Soli asked "why has your Majesty come alone without an army?" Gajaba replied, "I have come in order to take back the 12,000 persons whom your royal father brought here as prisoners in the time of my father." To this the king of Soli saying, "a king of our family it was who, in times past, went to the city of the gods and gained victory in the war with the "Asuras," refused to send for and deliver the men. Then Gajaba grew wroth and said "forthwith restore my 12,000 people, giving 12,000 more besides them; else will I destroy this city and reduce it to ashes." Having said this, he squeezed out water from sand and showed it; squeezed water from his iron mace and showed that. Having in this way intimidated the king of Soli he received the original number supplemented by an equal number of men as interest making 24,000 persons in all. He also took away the jewelled anklets of the goddess Pattini and the insignia of the gods of the four devala, and also the bowl-relic which had, been carried off in the time of king Valagamba; and admonishing the king not to act thus in future.'

'On his arrival he landed the captives, sent each captive who owned ancestral property to his inherited estate and caused the supernumerary captives to be distributed over and to settle in these countries, viz., Alutkuruwa, Sarasiya-pattuwa, Yatinuwara, Udunuwara, Tupane, Hewahata, Dansiya, Pattuwa, Egoda Tiha and Magada Tiha. This king reigned 24 years and went to the world of the gods.'

There is an interesting reference to a famine in the short reign of Kunchanaga of two years. This would correspond under the Geiger scheme to the years A.D. 243-44, but under the scheme of Ceylon chronology beginning B.C. 543, it would be A.D. 183-4. This latter dating would bring it over close to the date of a great famine in the Pandya country which figures in traditions concerning the history of Tamil literature. The famine in Ceylon is called Eka-Nalika famine, which means, under the ordinary acceptation of similar expressions, that the staple grain, apparently rice, was sold at one Nalika (one-eighth of the standard measure) for each main unit of currency. The next reign of importance in this religious history of Ceylon that brings Ceylon into connection with India is that of a Tissa known generally by his surname Voharika-Tissa, the adjunct Voharika is the Pali form of Vyavaharika meaning, "knowing the law because he put an end to physical injury as a penalty under law." His reign is of importance in this particular connection as it was then for the first time that the heretical sect of the Buddhists following the Vetulya1 doctrine is said to have assumed importance in the island. This heresy under Voharika Tissa was suppressed by the king by means of a minister of his named Kapila. The king is said to have followed the orthodox doctrine as a result of the discourses of the thera-Deva who was a resident of Kambugama. This heresy of the Vetulya is said to have originated in A.B. 752, the equivalent of A.D. 209 in the first year of the reign of Voharika Tissa, according to Turnour the translator of the Mahavamsa; the peculiarity of the doctrine of these heretics consisted in regarding (1) the Buddha as a supernatural being, and (2) the doctrine (Dharma) as having been preached not by the Buddha himself but by Ananda his chief disciple.2 This

1 Kern's Indian Buddhism, pp. 121-126.

2 I-tsing's Record, p. 14, Takakasu's Trans.

Both (Mahayanists and Hinayauists adopt one and the Fame discipline (Vinaya), and they have in common the prohibition of the five skandhas (groups of offences), and also the practice of the " Four Noble Truths."

"Those who worship the Bodhisattvas and read the Mahayana Sutras are called Mahayanists (the great), while those who do not perform these are called the Hinayanists (the small). There are but two kinds of the so-called Mahayana. First the Madhyamika; second the Yoga. The former profess that which is commonly called existence is in reality non-existence and every object is but an empty show, like an illusion; whereas the latter affirm that there exist no other things in reality, but only inward thoughts, and all things exist only in the mind (lit. all things are but one mind)." seems to give us a clear indication of the connection between this school of Buddhism and the school of Bhakti in Hinduism, thus apparently harmonising somewhat with this rising school of Hindu thought, such harmonising being one of the special features of Mahayana Buddhism. Taranatha makes a statement of value in this connection as, according to him, Nagarjuna's preceptor, the Brahman Rahula-Bhadra, the Mahayanist is said to have been "much indebted to sage Krishna, and still more to Ganesa." This would ordinarily mean no more than that Maha-yanism was indebted to special schools of Bhakti, both Vaishnava and Saiva, rather more to the latter than to the former. What minister Kapila did for suppressing this heresy we are not told. What exactly was the occasion that called for any special preaching on the part of the Thera-Deva, we are left in equal darkness about; but so much is clear that the Vetulya heresy had assumed such importance and had apparently shown itself to be so aggressive that the attention of even the judicially-minded monarch was called for for keeping it under control. If the date 209 A.D. could be regarded as the correct equivalent, it will lead us a long way towards settling the date of Nagarjuna. The Deva who discoursed effectively to this Voharika Tissa and kept him in orthodoxy, it is very probable, was the rival of Nagarjuna, who could not have lived very long anterior to this actual date. The importance of the connection between the coast region of India and Ceylon will appear later. The successor of this monarch became a fugitive from the country as a result of an intrigue of his brother with the queen, and was sometime resident in the