Northern Africa includes the Barbary States of Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria, and Morocco, the inhabitants of which are Moors, Arabs, and Berbers, an ignorant and warlike people. Morocco is the largest of the Barbary States, and is subject to Turkey. Algeria and Tunis are French possessions. Tripoli is a Turkish province.

Egypt, the most important country of Northern Africa, with an area of 494,000 square miles and a population of about 7,000,000, is the oldest of civilized nations existing to-day with a history. It was conquered successively by the Persians, Grecians, Romans, and Saracens, and is now under the control of Great Britain. It is noted for its massive ruins of ancient Egyptian architecture, the Pyramids being probably the oldest monuments in the world. These and the Sphinx are the wonders of Egypt sought by travelers.

Cairo, with 570,000 inhabitants, is the capital of Egypt. Alexandria is its chief seaport, and has a large European population.