Fig. 17. Iron Handscrew, or Thumbscrew cramp. 1/6.

Fig. 17. Iron Handscrew, or Thumbscrew cramp. 1/6.

I The Metre Measure 19

Pig. 18. Folding Metre-measure. 1/2.

II. In drawing straight lines use is made of an ordinary ruler and a lead pencil, but when great accuracy is required a marking point should be used. This consists of a piece of steel, tapering to a sharp point, about 4 inches long and 1/4 inch thick, inserted in a handle (Fig. 19).

III. In drawing lines parallel to the edges of a piece of wood, the marking gauge is used.

Many different kinds are made, but those generally used agree in the main details. They consist of a piece of wood, the stock, which has at least two parallel plane surfaces. A spindle, either circular or square in cross-section, passes through a mortise in the stock. At one end of the spindle is a sharp lancet-shaped steel marker. Some Swedish marking gauges have two spindles. That side of the stock which is placed against the edge to which the lines drawn are to be parallel, may vary in length, but when lines are drawn parallel to a straight edge (the most usual case), the longer the stock is the better, because this facilitates the accurate management of the tool, and enables even an inexperienced hand to gauge.

(1.) Marking gauge with rectangular long stock and cylindrical spindle (Fig. 20). The stock is sawn into at one end as far as the mortise, and to secure the spindle after insertion this end is furnished with a screw, by means of which the spindle is held fast in the manner indicated in Fig. 20. If a thumbscrew and nut are substituted for this screw, the necessary pressure can be more easily and surely produced. {See Plate X).

Fig. 19. Marking point

Fig. 19. Marking-point.

1/3.

Fig. 20. Marking gange. Landmark's patent. 1/4.

Fig. 20. Marking gange. Landmark's patent. 1/4.

* Where the English system of measurement is followed, a two foot rule is used, divided into eighths of an inch on one side, and into sixteenths on the other. The use of the metre-measure is, however, strongly recommended. (See footnote, page 13). - Trs.

(2.) Marking gauge (Fig. 21) with rectangular long stock and rectangular spindle. The spindle is held in place by wedges. This is a simple and inexpensive marking gauge, invented by Herr Alfred Johansson, head-teacher at Naas. It is recommended as a useful and practical tool for school purposes. {See Plate X.)

The long stocks of both these marking gauges give them the advantage already indicated over those hitherto in use, i.e., they enable inexperienced workers to gauge without difficulty.

The English marking gauge (Fig. 22) differs from the Swedish one in having a thumbscrew a on one side of the stock, which works against the spindle and holds it in position.

Fig. 21. Marking gauge. I/4.

Fig. 21. Marking-gauge. I/4.

Fig. 22. English Marking gauge.

Fig. 22. English Marking-gauge.

a. Thumbscrew.

The marker must be kept well filed and pointed to secure fine distinct lines, parallel throughout with the edge. The side farthest from the stock should be straight, and as nearly as possible parallel with the side of the stock. The inner side of the marker, on the contrary, should be slightly convex. The marker is thus calculated to cut inwards away from the edge, and does not " run off the lines " as a bad marker does, when it meets with a hard layer of autumn wood in cutting in the direction of the grain. With a good marker the gauge should act easily and well without exertion of any kind on the part of the worker.

The Marker.

(3) The cutting gauge has a parallelopiped shaped spindle secured by a wedge (Fig. 23). Instead of a pin-shaped marker it is provided with a thin steel cutter, adjusted by means of a pin. Cuttings more or less deep may thus be made on the surface of the work. This tool is chiefly used for gauging across the grain, and in setting out for grooving and dove-tailing.

In this, as in all marking gauges, it is important that the marker should be inserted in such a way that the inner side, and consequently the point, is slightly inclined outwards from the side of the stock.