Grinding the plane-iron.

The trying-plane should always be worked in the direction of its length, not obliquely to it, as is often improperly done.

The trying-plane should be about 20 inches long. [The English trying-plane is 22 inches long. - Trs.]

Length of the trying plane.

3. The smoothing-plane (Fig. 58) resembles the jack-plane, but is broader, and has a double iron.

Use of the smoothing plane.

Fig. 58. Smoothing plane.

Fig. 58. Smoothing-plane.

The smoothing-plane is used after the trying-plane to produce a very smooth polished surface. As the shavings it removes must be extremely fine, the edge of the cover is placed very close to the edge of the iron, or, as it is called, is "set fine in front." The smoothing plane should be about 9 1/2- inches long. [The

English smoothing-plane is 7 1/2 inches long. - Trs.] The smoothing-plane and planes like it may be furnished with a support for the hand, behind the iron, like the jack-plane.

Fig. 59. Iron Smoothing plane (American pattern), 1/3.

Fig. 59. Iron Smoothing-plane (American pattern), 1/3.

As mentioned above, the stocks of planes are sometimes

Iron planes made of iron. Planes of this kind are used in England, and to a still greater extent in America. The plane-iron is adjusted by means of a screw. Small iron smoothing-planes are very useful for children, whose hands are not large enough to hold planes of the ordinary size. A plane of this pattern is shown in Fig. 59.

4. The rebate-plane (Fig. 60). When the adjacent surfaces of a rebate have to be planed, the ordinary smoothing-plane does not answer because the iron is narrower than the sole. In the rebate-plane the edsre of the iron is as broad as the sole, sometimes even a little broader. The upper part of the iron is much narrower, and it is wedged into a mortise in the stock. The iron is single, and the shavings escape through an opening above its edge.

2. Planes for the Dressing of Curved Surfaces.

1. The round. - This plane is used for hollow grooved surfaces. It resembles the smoothing-plane and the jack-plane, but differs from them in the more or less convex sole,- the degree of convexity depending on the degree of concavity it is desired to produce. The iron may be single or double, and the edge is rounded to correspond with the sole. An ordinary jack-plane may easily be converted into a round, by round-mcr the sole and the edge of the iron. In working the round it must always be driven forward in a line with its length. In consequence of the shape of the tool, any other method would destroy the surface required.

Fig. 60. Rebate plane. 1/6.

Fig. 60. Rebate-plane. 1/6.

Fig. 61. Round. 1/5. P seen from behind.

Fig. 61. Round. 1/5. P seen from behind.

[2. The hollow, another plane of this kind, has the sole concave, and an iron to correspond. It is used in planing round surfaces. - Trs.]

3. The compass plane. - In this plane the sole is curved lengthwise, and the iron is an ordinary double one with a straight edge. It is used in planing hollow curved surfaces. Soles of different degrees of curvature are required, according to the radii of the surface to be planed, but it is not necessary that the two should accurately correspond. The curvature of the sole must not be less than the curvature of the surface of the work, but it maybe greater. The difference, however, if any, must be slight, because the two opposing surfaces must correspond closely enough to permit of the steady guidance of the tool. One compass-plane, therefore, will not suffice for surfaces of greatly varying curvature.

American compass-planes of iron, called adjustable planes, have flexible steel soles, which can be adapted to surfaces of different degrees of curvature. One plane of this kind is therefore enough.

3. The Old Woman's Tooth-Plane, and Dove-tail Filletster.

The old woman's tooth-plane is quite unlike the planes hitherto described. It consists of a block of wood on the inner side of which is fastened an iron, secured by a thumb-screw. (Fig. 63). The construction of some planes of this kind is much simpler; they consist merely of a parallelopiped piece of wood, in the middle of which is wedged a straight or curved iron. In this case the blade of a firmer chisel is often used.

Fig. 62. Compass Plane. 1/5.

Fig. 62. Compass Plane. 1/5.

Fig. 63. Old Woman's Tooth Plane, seen from above and from the side. 1/5.

Fig. 63. Old Woman's Tooth-Plane, seen from above and from the side. 1/5.

The dove-tail filletster is like the rebate plane, but differs from it in having the plane of the sole oblique to the sides of the stock, instead of at right angles to them, and also in having a rebate either in a piece with the sole, or attached to it for the purpose of guiding the plane along the line of the dove-tail rebate to be formed.

In the simple kind of filletster shown in Fig. 64, the rebate is fixed, but in the more complicated kind (Fig. 65), the rebate is adjustable to suit deeper or shallower work ; the latter is also provided with a "cutter" which determines the line within which the surface is to be planed. This line, in other cases, must first be gauged with a cutting gauge; otherwise the plane will tear the fibres on that side and make it uneven.

Fig. 64. Dove tail Filletster, seen from the side and from behind. 1/5.

Fig. 64. Dove-tail Filletster, seen from the side and from behind. 1/5.

Fig. 65. Dove tail Filletster. |.

Fig. 65. Dove-tail Filletster. |.

Both these planes are used in making dove-tail rebates; the old woman's tooth in smoothing and levelling the bottom of the groove into which the dove-tail is shot, and the filletster in working the dove-tail.

4. The Plough.

When a rectangular groove is made in a piece of wood the plough is used (see Plate X.) The breadth of the iron must not exceed the breadth of the groove to be made, and the sole consists of an iron splint set into the stock. The plough is furnished with a directing gauge, adjustable by bolts and wedges or screws. From 6 to 12 irons of different breadths accompany each plane.

5. The Iron Spokeshave.

The spokeshave may be included in the same class as the plane. It is made entirely of iron, with two handles, and is worked with both hands. The sole is very short - shorter than the breadth of the iron - and this renders the tool very useful in forming narrow convex or concave surfaces.

The iron is secured by a screw and a fixing plate. The latter also does duty as a cover, and makes the tool more serviceable (see Fig. 66).

The spokeshave is a simple, practical, and easily-managed tool. It is made in several sizes, and the iron may have a straight edge, or one which curves outivards. The former is more common.

[The spokeshave described above is an American pattern. English spokeshaves are made of wood, and are recommended. -Trs.]

Fig. 66. Spokeshave. 1/4.

Fig. 66. Spokeshave. 1/4.