Planned for a bank building. The solid wall of stone and brick ten feet high throws away the ground floor frontage, from which the chief income should be obtained. Berlin Building, Tacoma.

Subject to limitations from changing conditions and local circumstances in different cities, the following table is an estimate of the character of business buildings, as to cost, height and material, which may suitably be erected on land of varying values:

On land valued per front foot.

Buildings may cost per cubic foot about:

Construction of buildings may be:

Height of buildings may be:

$200

8 to 10 cents

Ordinary brick

2 story

300

8 to 10 cents

Ordinary brick

3 story

500

8 to 10 cents

Ordinary brick

3 to 4 story

800

12 to 20 cents

Ordinary brick

4 to 5 story

1,000

12 to 20 cents

Slowburning

5 to 6 story

1,500

12 to 20 cents

Slowburning

5 to 6 story

2,000

18 to 25 cents

Tending to fireproof

7 to 9 story

3,000

18 to 25 cents

Tending to fireproof

7 to 9 story

6,000

30 to 50 cents

Skeleton steel, fireproof

10 to 12 story

15,000

30 to 50 cents

Skeleton steel, fireproof

12 to 20 story

18,000-35,000

30 to 50 cents

Skeleton steel, fireproof

20 to 30 story

Turning to residences, the proportion of cost of building may vary from one and a half to three times the value of the land, except as to workmen's cottages, where it may vary from three to five times the value of the land. The highest grade houses are ordinarily built for homes and cost more than they will sell for or than their rentals will pay interest on, this lack of commercial value increasing with the cost of the house. In expensive houses in smaller cities there is a tendency towards restoring the equilibrium between the value of the land and buildings by placing them on plots of 100 to 150 feet front by 200 to 400 feet deep. This equilibrium is more apparent than real, since not over 75 feet of frontage is necessary for the house, the balance of the land being a luxury on which taxes are paid and interest lost In all cases the cost of the house should be closely proportioned to the cost of the surrounding houses - a $50,000 house in the midst of $5,000 houses, or a $5,000 house in the midst of $1,000 houses, having a commercial value but little in excess of the cheaper neighboring houses. Instances could be cited of houses costing five times as much as the surrounding houses which have not sold for as much as the cheaper ones, because rich people will not live among cheap houses, and poor people cannot afford to keep up large houses. Such houses usually sell for boarding-houses or sanitoriums. On the other hand, a small house in the midst of expensive ones will usually sell and rent well, there being strong competition to obtain a residence location of social importance at small outlay. There is, however, a limit to the erection of cheap residences in good locations, a large number of them spoiling the value of locations otherwise suitable for handsome residences, and some houses in fashionable sections being too small to sell well. Turning to the larger cities, houses built in blocks represent a pressure of population on land, which does not permit the use of land for light and air around detached houses. In this class of residences the cost of the house should not greatly exceed the value of the land, with a general tendency, where the land is cheap, of the cost of the houses exceeding the land value, and where the land is expensive, the cost of the houses being less than the land value. A still more intense pressure of population on land results in apartment houses, which may properly vary in cost from two to four times the value of the land. Where apartment houses are built in smaller cities, especially if they are large and expensive, they anticipate a pressure on land which has not yet arrived, and are. apt to be unsuccessful. Such apartment houses sometimes cost ten to fifteen times the. value of the land, the danger of such a top-heavy investment being the abundance of competing land which can be cheaply obtained, and the fact that almost the entire investment is in the building, which is certain to depreciate physically. For example, where a $50,000 apartment house has been erected on $5,000 of land, assuming In 10 years a 30% depreciation of the building, or $15,000, and a 30% appreciation of the land, or $1,500, the net capital loss would be $13,500. The mistake of all owners who erect expensive buildings on cheap land is in not realizing that buildings erected to rent do not dominate their environment. The advantage of an even division of investment between land and building is clear, in that as against the certain physical depreciation of the building there may be an appreciation of the land to offset it. Where tall apartment houses are erected on the corners of the traffic streets they injure the value of the adjacent lots on the side streets, despite their acting as buffers to the noise and dust of the traffic streets. With limitations, the following is an estimate of the charaeter of residences as to cost, size and construction, which may suitably be erected on land of varying values: