Good store front. Great width between piers. Low show windows with prism glass above. Summit Street, Toledo.

Good store front. Great width between piers. Low show windows with prism glass above. Summit Street, Toledo.

Recessed front with piers utilized for show cases. A good plan for so narrow a street as Nassau Street, New York.

Recessed front with piers utilized for show cases. A good plan for so narrow a street as Nassau Street, New York.

Before outlining the. normal yield and resulting land values of the various utilities, we may note that the chief variation in them is in the form of deductions due to nuisances, under which name we may class anything tending to depreciate the value of land. The character of nuisances varies according to the section in which they are located, the cheaper the property the more impregnable to attack, and the more expensive the property the more sensitive to the levelling power of proximity, the tendency of all adjoining buildings being to strike a mean.

To classify nuisances, those affecting retail business property are adjoining vacancies, whether caused by rebuilding, fire, removals or failures, low class neighbors such as saloons, dilapidations, whether of buildings, sidewalks or surroundings, and topographical faults, such as sharp variations of grade, underground streams or quicksands. One of the most serious drawbacks which could happen to business buildings would be the construction of a viaduct carrying all the traffic past them at an elevation, as with the 8th Street viaduct in Kansas City and the High Holborn Viaduct in London, the latter being constructed to avoid the blocking of traffic at the intersection of Oxford and Farringdon's Streets. In office sections the chief nuisance to tall buildings consists of their being crowded so close together as to cut off light and air from each other. Apart from this, skyscrapers remote from the earth's surface have but little to fear, unless it be the chimney of adjoining lower buildings, which can be compelled to run up higher if the smoke is objectionable. Temporary nuisances, however, may arise at the ground level, such as streets torn up for repairs, the laying of pipes, etc., or sidewalks blocked while an adjacent building is being erected.

Example of converted building. Old style residence altered into stores. Denver.

Example of converted building. Old style residence altered into stores. Denver.

Residences are more easily affected than business property, although values are lower, in that the erection of almost any building other than a residence, constitutes a nuisance. For example, all kinds of factories, even those which emit neither smell nor noise; power-houses of street railroads; hospitals, largely for fear of infection; public schools, on account of the noise made by the scholars; business buildings, hotels or apartment houses, on account of their taking away light, air and quiet from the adjoining property; low lands, owing to fear of malaria - and all cheap, old and dilapidated buildings constitute nuisances. All rough and rocky land, or a steep grade with bluffs, hollows, standing pools or ponds, is undesirable, unless the unsightliness has been taken away by conversion into small parks. Stables constitute the most common nuisance to residences in New York, a "stable street" having a greatly diminished value, as for example, lots on 55th Street, west of 5th Avenue, sold for about half the price of those on 54th Street, and lots on 52d Street, east of 5th Avenue, about two-thirds the. price of those on 51st Street. Street railroads, which in the smaller cities may raise residence values, in the larger cities are always nuisances on residence streets, one certain result being that they attract shops, and when this process begins the desirability of the street for residence ends.