Oil and natural gas from beneath the surface of the earth are usually regarded as minerals,42 but, owing to their fluid character, they are subject to rules different from those applicable to other minerals, and are treated some38. Reg v. Earl of Northumberland, 1 Plowd, 310.

39. 1 Wm. & M. c. 30, 5 Wm. & M. c. 6, (A. D. 1688, 1693).

40. Post Sec. 423.

41. Moore v. Smaw, 17 Cal. 199. But see Gold Hill Quartz Min. Co. v. Ish, 5 Ore. 104.

42. Brown v. Spilman, 155 U. S. 665, 39 L. Ed. 304; Peoples' Gas. Co. v. Tyner, 131 Ind. 277, 16 L. R. A. 443, 31 Am. St. Rep.

433, 31 N. E. 59; Weaver v. Richards, 156 Mich. 320, 120 N. W. 818; Funk v. Haldeman, 53 Pa. St 229; Jones v. Forest Oil Co., 194 Pa. St. 379, 48 L. R. A. 748, 44 Atl.

1074; Murray v. Allred, 100 Tenn. 100, 39 L. R. A. 249, 66 Am. St. Rep. 740, 43 S. W. 355, Williams v. South Penn. Oil Co., 52 W. Va. 188, 60 L. R. A. 795, 43 S. E. 214. But see Preston v. South Penn. Oil Co., 238 Pa. 301, 86 Atl. 203.

Oil and gas in the land are occasionally referred to as belonging to the owner of the land,45 but, in view of their liability to escape into other land, they can be regarded as belonging to the owner of the land in a very limited sense, if at all.46 "Each surface owner in an oil or gas area has the exclusive right on his own land to seek the oil and gas in the reservoir beneath, but has no fixed or certain ownership of them until he reduces them to actual possession."47 In of the land beneath the surface in which the oil or gas exists, free from liability for waste by reason of the extraction of the oil or gas.52 permanent roots, have usually been regarded as fructus industriales, as being the result of the industry of the tenant in possession;59 and on the same principle, crude turpentine formed on the body of a tree, produced by labor and cultivation, has been so classed.60 The practical applications of the distinction between fructus industriales and fructus naturales are stated in the five sections next following. While, as will be seen therein, fructus industriales are for most purposes treated as personal property, whether it is proper to regard them as personal property for all purposes is open to considerable question.61

43. Brown v. Spilman, 155 U. S. 665, 39 L. Ed. 304; Columbian Oil Co. v. Blake, 13 Ind. App. 680; Hail v. Reed, 15 B. Mor (Ky.) 479; Kelley v. Ohio Oil Co., 57 Ohio St. 317, 39 L. R. A. 765, 63 Am. St. Rep. 721, 49 N. E. 399; Stoughton's Appeal, 88 Pa. St. 198; South Penn. Oil Co. v. Me-Intire, 44 W. Va. 296, 28 S. E. 922.

44. Brown v. Spilman, 155 U. S. 665, 39 L. Ed. 304; Peoples' Gas Co. v. Tyner, 131 Ind. 277, 16 L. R. A. 443, 31 Am. St. Rep. 443, 31 N. E. 59; Kelley v. Ohio Oil Co., 57 Ohio St. 317, 39 L. R. A. 765, 63 Am. St. Rep. 721, 49 N. E. 399; Westmoreland & C. Natural Gas Co. v. DeWitt, 130 Pa. St. 235, 5 L. R. A. 731, 18 Atl. 724; Gain v. South Penn. Oil Co., 76 W. Va. 769, L. R. A. 1916B, 1002, 86 S. E. 883.

45. See Brown v. Spilman, 155 U. S. 665, 39 L. Ed. 304; Hail v. Reed, 15 B. Mon. (Ky.) 479; Lan-yon Zinc Co. v. Freeman, 68 Kan. 691, 75 Pac. 995; Hughes v. United Pipe Lines, 119 N. Y. 423, 23 N. E. 1042; Stoughton's Appeal, 88 Pa. St. 198; Hague v. Wheeler, 157 Pa. 324, 22 L. R. A. 141, 37 Am. St.

Rep. 736, 27 Atl. 714; Williamson v. Jones, 39 W. Va. 231, 25 L. R. A. 222, 19 S. E. 436.

46. See Ohio Oil Co. v. Indiana No. 1, 177 U. S. 190, 44 L. Ed. 729; Poe v. Ulrey, 233 111. 56, 84 N. E. 46; Heller v. Dailey, 28 Ind. App. 555, 63 N. E. 490; Strother v. Mangham, 138 La. 437, 70 So. 426; Shepherd v. McCalmont Oil Co., 38 Hun (N. Y.) 37; Dark v. Johnson, 55 Pa. 164.

47. Lindsley v. Natural Carbonic Gas Co., 220 U. S. 61, 55 . Ed. 369.

View of the restricted nature of the ownership of which oil or gas in the land is thus capable, it would seem that like water in the land, it is not properly a subject of ownership distinct from the soil itself,48 but it has occasionally been regarded as susceptible of such ownership.49

In perhaps two of the states the right of the owner of land to extract the gas therein has been regarded as subject to a limitation that the gas must not be wasted or needlessly extracted in such a way as to threaten the destruction of the supply,50 a view which accords with that above indicated, that the owner of land is not the owner of the oil and gas therein until he has reduced it to actual possession.

An oil or gas lease may either have the legal effect of a grant for a limited period of the right to take oil or gas from the land,51 or it may operate, apparently, as a conveyance of an interest in that part

48. Watford Oil & Gas Co. v. Shipman, 233 111. 9, 122 Am. St. Rep. 144, 84 N. E. 53; New American Oil & Min. Co. v. Troyer, 168 Ind. 402, 76 N E. 253 77 N. E. 739; Kolachny v. Galbreath, 26 Okla. 772, 110 Pac. 902; Dark v. Johnston, 55 Pa. 164; Kelly v. Keys, 213 Pa. 295, 110 Am. St. Rep. 547, 62 Atl. 911. See article by John Stokes Adams, Esq. in 63 Univ. of Penna. Law Rev. 471.

49. Moore v. Griffin, 72 Kan. 164. 4 L. R. A. (N. S.) 477, 83 Pac 395; Southern Oil Co. v. Colquitt, 28 Tex. Civ. App. 292, 69 S. W. 169; Murray v. Allred, 100 Tenn. 100, 39 L. R. A. 249, 66 Am. St. Rep. 740, 43 S. W. 355; Preston v. White, 57 W. Va. 278, 50 S. E. 236; Stoughton's Appeal, 8C Pa. St. 198.

50. Manufacturers's Gas & Oil

Co v. Indiana Natural Gas & Oil Co, 155 Ind. 461, 50 L. R. A. 768, 57 N. E. 912; Heller v. Dailey, 28 Ind. App. 555, 63 N. E. 490; Louisville Gas Co. v. Kentucky Heating Co 117 Ky. 71. 77 S. W. 368, 30 L. R. A. 588, 4 Ann. Cas. 355, 111 Am. St. Rep. 225. And see Hat-horn v. Natural Carbonic Gas Company, 194 N. Y. 326, 23 L. R. A. (N. S ) 436, 128, Am. St. Rep. 555, 87 N. E. 504; Contra, Hague v. Wheeler, 157 Pa. 324, 22 L. R. A 141, 37 Am. St. Rep. 736, 27 Atl 714.

51. See Graciosa Oil Co. v. Santa Barbara County, 155 Cal. 140, 99 Pac. 483; Monfort v. Lan-yon Zinc Co., 67 Kan. 310, 72 Pac. 784; Hicks v. American Nat. Gas Co., 207 Pa. 570, 65 L. R. A. 209, 57 Atl. 55; Toothman v. Courtney, 62 W. Va. 167, 58 S. E. 915.

An oil or gas lease which contemplates, in the first place, merely an exploration of the land in order to ascertain whether oil or gas can be found therein "in paying quantities," has been regarded as vesting no proprietary right in the lessee until oil or gas to that extent is actually found and, as expressed in some of the cases, as giving him a mere option in connection with the land, so that, in case he fails to exercise reasonable diligence in the search for oil or gas, or in case he fails to find it by the exercise of such diligence, his interest under the lease, such as it was, comes to and end.53 In some cases, moreover, without especial reference to whether the presence of oil or gas in paying quantities has been ascertained or remains still to be ascertained, it has been decided that a failure by the lessee, for a considerable time, to continue operations on the land, justifies a finding of abandonment by him, of which the owner of the land may avail himself,54 and a condition of forfeiture to that effect has occasionally been implied.55

52. See Woodland Oil Co. v. Crawford, 55 Ohio St. 161, 34 L. R. A. 62, 44 N. E. 1093; Barnsdal! v. Bradford Gas. Co., 225 Pa. 338, 26 L. R. A. (N. S.) 614, 74 Atl. 207; McKean Natural Gas. Co v. Wolcott, 254 Pa. 323, 98 Atl. 95".

53. Mansfield Gas Co. v. Park-hill, 114 Ark. 419, 169 3. W. 957; Florence Oil & Refining Co. v. Orman, 19 Colo. App. 79. 73 Pac. 628; Ohio Oil Co. v. Detamore, 165 Ind. 243, 73 N. E. 966; Harris v. Riggs, -, Ind. App. -, 112 N. E. 36; Dickey v. Coffeyville Vitrified Brick & Tile Co., 69 Kan. 106, 76 Pac. 398; Kelley v. Harris, -, Okla. -, 162 Pac. 219; Venture Oil

Co. v. Fretts, 152 Pa. 451, 25 Atl. 732; Calhoon v. Neely, 201 Pa. 97, .50 Atl. 967; Richlands Oil Co. v. Morriss, 108 Va. 288, 61 S. E. 762; Slate v. South Penn. Oil Co., 41' W. Va. 80, 24 S. E. 688; Huggine v. Daley, 40 C. C. A. 12, 99 Fed. 606, 48 L. R. A. 320.

54. Mansfield Gas Co. v. Park-hill, 114 Ark. 419, 169 S. W. 957; Soaper v. King, 167 Ky. 121. I80 S. W. 46; Eaton v. Allegheny Gas Co., 122 N. Y. 416; Kleppner v. Lemon, 176 Pa. 502, 35 Atl. 109; Jennings v. Southern Carbon Co., 73 W. Va. 215, 80 S. E. 368.

55. Acme Oil & Min. Co. v. Williams, 140 Cal. 6S1, 74 Pac.

III. Vegetable Products of the Earth.