The specific gravity of water is inferior to the of metals, and consequently water, absolutely speaking, cannot support a ball of iron or lead; but if this ball be flattened, and beat out to a very thin plate, it will, if put softly upon still water, be prevented from sinking, and will swim upon its surface like any light substance. In like manner, if a fine steel needle which is perfectly dry, be placed gently upon some still water in a vessel, it will float upon the surface without sinking.

But if you would have a metallic body of large dimensions to swim upon water, you must reduce it into a thin concave plate, like a kettle; in which case, as the air it contains, to-gether with the body itself, weighs less than the same bulk of water, it cannot possibly sink; as is evident from large copper boats, or pontoons, by which whole armies have frequently passed over rivers without danger.

If this concave metallic vessel be placed upon the water with its mouth downwards, it will swim as before, and the contained air will keep the bottom of it from being wet; for that the water will not rise into any hollow vessel which is immersed into it, may be made evident thus: - Take a glass tumbler, and plunge it into water with its mouth downwards, and you will find, when you take it out, that the inside of the vessel is perfectly dry, so that if a live coal were put there, it would not be extinguished.