Rome was founded in the year of the world 3230, in the third year of the 6th Olympiad, and in the seven hundred and fifty-third before the Christian era, on Mount Palatine. Rome is the principal, although not the most pleasing figure of the ancient world. The destinies of the noblest part of mankind were intimately connected by fate, during many centuries, with the events and interests of this imperial city. It at first, by force of arms and policy; then by laws, civilization, and manners; afterwards by sacerdotal power; and at last by her language, has ruled over the world, and enjoyed the veneration of nations in uninterrupted succession. The history of Rome, is, during a considerable space of time, the history of the world. Many of the most important determinations of our condition, at the present day, are derived from the City on the Tiber, and there is hardly one European nation whose history would be intelligible without that of Rome. It contains, besides the richest treasures of great characters and of imposing spectacles, the most impressive evidences of the power of man, and that of fate. It is, in fine, a continuous commentary of policy and political laws, and an illustrating counterpart of the revolutions of the latest times.

Rome from the Capitol {see Frontispiece). - In the foreground is the Arch of Constantine, the last perfect survivor of the many grand structures of its class, erected by the sovereigns who held sway over the Eternal City. On the left is the Pantheon, a temple devoted to the gods of all nations. It is the only one of the grand temples that have come to our era scarcely marred by either time or man. Its front is a very fine pure Grecian form, while the main part of the structure is a vast rotunda, surmounted by a dome. It owes its preservation to the fact that it was at an early period used as a Christian church, and dedicated to the Virgin. It was erected by Agrippa, and afterward dedicated as we have said. In a prominent part of the picture the Coliseum towers above the surrounding buildings. It was built for and used as a circus, in which gladitorial and other spectacles were exhibited. Yespasian, the father of Titus, was its founder It is the largest building for its purpose ever erected by man. It is 581 feet in length, 481 in breadth, 1,616 in circumference. It was of this building that the poet, Byron, wrote:

"While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand; When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall, And when Rome falls - the world."

Nearly in the centre stands Trajan's Pillar, almost perfect, and covered with exquisitely graven bas reliefs. Far in the middle distance is pictured the mighty fane of St. Peter's, the grandest edifice ever reared by mortal hands to the Deity. In size it exceeds every other, it being calculated that it would hold twelve buildings like New York's Trinity within its walls. Its dome is so lofty and widespread as to make visitors feel little beneath it. In various directions are seen that incongruous mixture of noble, half-ruined edifices, squalid huts, and common-place-looking houses, which render modern Rome unlike any other capitol on the globe.