Baghirmi, a kingdom of central Africa, S. E. of Lake Tchad, between the Bornoo and Wadai countries, bounded W. by the Shari river and its affluents; greatest length from N. to S., about 240 m.; greatest breadth, 150 m.; pop., inclusive of the pagan dependencies in the outlying S. E. provinces, about 1,500,000, chiefly negroes, and nominally Mohammedans, though there are still many remains of pagan rites. The country is principally a plain, nearly 1,000 feet above the sea, there being no mountains excepting in the extreme north and in the outlying S. and S. E. provinces. The capital is Mascnya, in hit. 11° 88' X., Jon. 16° E. The army consists of 10,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry. The chief products are millet, sorghum, sesamum, beans, ground nuts, a kind of grass called jojo, rice, cotton, and indigo. Wheat is raised only for the private use of the sultan. The principal trees are the tamarind and the deleb palm. The climate is extremely hot. There are no mines. The horses are line, and the shouwa Arabs wandering between Baghir-mi and Lake Tchad have large flocks of sheep and cattle.
The people (Bagarmi) are superior in appearance and character to other central African tribes, and the women are among the finest in Negroland; but the men are cruel in warfare and castrate their prisoners. - Baghir-mi became an independent kingdom in the 16th century, and was afterward converted to Mohammedanism. In 1815, after a long war, it became tributary to Bornoo and Wadai. The title of the ruler is banga (sultan). Dr. Barth (1852) was the first European to visit the country.