Blanqui. I. Jerome Adolphe, a French political economist, born in Nice, Nov. 20, 1798, died in Paris, Jan. 28, 1854. His father, Jean Dominique, was a deputy to the national convention, one of the 73 members sent to prison on the fall of the Girondists (June 2,1793), and afterward a member of the council of 500. The son was originally destined to the study of medicine, but having become acquainted with Jean Baptiste Say while pursuing his studies at Paris, he was induced to devote himself to political economy. He published a Resume of the history of commerce and industry (1826), and this was soon followed by a Precis elementaire oVecono-mie politique, and several minor publications. In 1830 he was chosen professor in the special school of commerce, where his lectures on the history of commerce and industrial civilization attracted unusual attention. When Say retired from his professorship in the conservatoire des arts et metiers, Blanqui succeeded to his place. In 1837-42 he issued his most important work, L'Histoire de l'economie politique en Europe depuis les ancient juiqu a nos jours (5 vols. 8vo). In 1846-'8 Blanqui was a member of the chamber of deputies from Bordeaux. At the industrial congress at Brussels in 1847, his discourses were remarked for their vivacity and learning.
He visited various countries of Europe for the purpose of studying their condition, and embodied the results in his books; and in 1851 he furnished a complete account of the financial aspects of London for the academy of moral and political sciences, of which he was a member. II. Louis Auguste, a socialistic revolutionist and conspirator, brother of the preceding, born in Nice in 1805. In 1830, while a student of law, he took up arms against Charles X., and received the decoration of July. Under the government of Louis Philippe he kept up a constant warfare through the press on the existing state of things, and became one of the most active propagators of the doctrines which led to the revolution of 1848. In 1835 he was arrested, tried, and sentenced to one year's imprisonment and a fine of 200 francs. A few months later, being suspected of complicity with Fieschi, he was sent to prison for two years and fined 3,000 francs, but was amnestied before the expiration of his term. As soon as he was released, he renewed his onslaught upon monarchical government and formed an organization to carry his ideas into effect. In 1839, with Barbes and others, he attempted an insurrection, which was speedily cheeked, and he was condemned to death, but the sentence was commuted to perpetual imprisonment.
He was released by the revolution of 1848, and immediately organized the revolutionary "Central Republican Society." He led in the attempt on May 15 to overthrow the constituent a>sembly, and was a few days later arrested and sentenced to ten years' imprisonment. He was released in 1859, but was sentenced again to four years' imprisonment in January, 1862. He appeared again as one of the active spirits in the violent agitations in favor of the red republic which culminated in the Paris commune in 1871, and was still in 1872 a prisoner of state.