Rouge Et Noir (Fr., red and black), Trente-un (thirty-one), or Trente et Quarante (thirty and forty), a game of chance played with cards upon a table marked with two large spots of red and black (whence the name), of a diamond shape, placed opposite to each other. The banker, or tailleur (dealer), who represents him, having shuffled six packs of cards together, draws as many cards as will, counted by their points (the ace counting 1, the court cards 10 each, and the others according to their number of spots), amount to at least 31; so that if he should happen to count only 30, he must still draw another card. The whole number of cards drawn must be more than 30 and not more than 40. These he places in one row or parcel, and designates as noir; and he immediately afterward draws in the same manner another parcel of cards for the rouge. The players, who play against the tailleur, and whose number may be unlimited, have previously placed their stakes on the red or black spots upon the table, and as the rouge or the noir parcel of cards amounts to 31 or approaches nearest to it, they win or lose; i. e., if the rouge counts for example 32 and the noir 33 or more, the money placed upon the red wins.
When the tailleur deals to the second or rouge parcel of cards the same number he has turned up in the noir, it is called a refait, and another deal must be had. There are two other chances, called couleur and inverse, which are determined by the color of the first card turned up and the success of rouge or noir; those playing on the couleur winning if the first card dealt is of the successful color, and those on the in-terse if the contrary. This game, with roulette, was forbidden by law in France in 1838.