Estoppel, an impediment or bar in law to a right of action or defence, arising from a man's own act or conduct. Estoppels are: 1, by record, which arise where judgment has been rendered by a court of competent jurisdiction, whereby the parties thereto and their privies are for ever precluded from alleging matters which would be contradictory to the record; 2, by deed, which being supposed an instrument of very solemn and deliberative nature, the party executing the same and his privies in law or in estate are not permitted to deny the facts which it evidences; 3, by matter in pais, as where a man stands by and sees his own property sold by a third person as the property of the seller, and fails to assert his title at the time, and another buys and pays for the property in good faith, he will be estopped or precluded from alleging his title afterward. In general it may be said that where one by his silence, when good faith required him to speak, has induced another to suppose that a certain state of facts exists, he shall not be allowed afterward to dispute such facts to the prejudice of the party thus deceived by his silence. (See Evidence.)