Kublai Khan, called in Chinese She-tsu And Hu-Pe-Li, the founder of the 20th or Mongol dynasty of Chinese emperors, born in the earlier part of the 13th century, died in Peking in 1294. He was the grandson of Genghis Khan, under whom the conquest of China had been commenced. A branch of the great Tartar family, known in Chinese history as the oriental Tartars, had harassed the feeble and debauched princes of the Sung dynasty, then governing the principal provinces of China, to such an extent that Li-sung, the reigning emperor about 1250, called in the western Tartars, of whom Kublai Khan was sovereign, to drive out the oriental invaders. This effected, Kublai Khan established himself in China, and in 1260 assumed the title of emperor of that country. The Sung dynasty, though unable to make any effective resistance, continued to maintain a nominal existence till 1279, when it was extinguished. Kublai Khan now entered vigorously upon the administration of his empire. Assisted by three wise ministers, Yao-tchu, Hing-heng, and Teou-mo, he reformed the army and the administration of civil affairs, reorganized the tribunals of mathematics and astronomy, and called to his court men of letters from all countries, among them the Venetian merchant Marco Polo. He organized an expedition for the conquest of Japan, but a part of his fleet was overwhelmed by a violent tempest, and the remainder destroyed by the Japanese. The discontent of the nobles and the people at this untoward result admonished the emperor to seek conquests in directions where they might be more easily won, and he subjected to his sway Tonquin and Cochin China, and reigned as emperor from the Arctic sea to the straits of Malacca, and from the Yellow sea to the Euxine. He seems to have been, for his time and his country, a ruler of extraordinary ability and integrity.