Fueros (from Lat. forum, a law court), a term applied in Spanish law to customs, codes, charters, and grants, and to courts and their jurisdiction. The Fuero Juzgo, or Forum Jv-dicum, is a collection of Visigoth laws, which St. Ferdinand sent to Cordova in 1241, to be observed there as the law of the territory which he had rescued from the Moors. The first printed edition of it is of 1600; the best is that of the academy, in Latin and Spanish (1 vol., Madrid, 1815). The fueros or constitutional privileges of the Basque provinces, Guipuzcoa, Alava, Biscay, and Upper Navarre, place them outside of the ordinary administration of the kingdom. Their government is essentially republican, the executive having only the power of nominating the corregidor or chief magistrate, whose nomination has to be confirmed by the junta of the province, a legislative body elected by almost universal suffrage. The inhabitants of these provinces are exempt from all taxes and imposts, except such as they vote themselves, and claim by virtue of their birth the privileges of Spanish nobility.
From the remotest antiquity they have maintained their rights against all the dynasties of Spain. In the 13th century the fueros were embodied in a written code, which was enlarged and reconfirmed in the reign of the emperor Charles V. The fueros, suppressed in 1812, were recovered after two insurrections, in the last of which, from 1821 to 1823, the Basques maintained their cause till the French intervention took place. Deprived of them again by Isabella in 1833, they fought for their recovery under Don Carlos till 1839, when the queen, and in 1844 the cortes, guaranteed their enjoyment. (See Basques.)