Gallican Church, a name sometimes used as merely signifying the Catholic church in France, while more commonly it is applied to that church only so far as it holds to certain national privileges, doctrines, and usages. Those who have advocated these distinguishing peculiarities, in opposition to Rome, have therefore generally been called the Gallican party, while their opponents were known as the Roman, papal, or, in modern times, the ultramontane party. In the church of France there was from the beginning a strong feeling of nationalism, the most important manifestation of which is found in the pragmatic sanction of St. Louis (Louis IX.), issued in 1269, which forbade the levying of moneys for the court of Rome without the royal consent, and fixed, independently of the pope, the cases in which appeals were allowed from ecclesiastical tribunals to the royal courts. The spirit of independence was strengthened by the decrees passed in the fourth and fifth sessions of the council of Constance, and those enacted by the council of Basel while in open revolt against the pope.

Although these decrees were condemned by Roman pontiffs, they were adopted by France at the assembly of estates at Bourges in 1438, and promulgated in the pragmatic sanction of Charles VII., the fundamental law of the Gallican church. This placed the general council above the pope, forbade the paying of taxes to the pope for appointing bishops and prelates, and abolished the annates after the death of the then living pope. This sanction was repealed by Louis XL in 14(31, but restored by Charles VIII., and by Louis XII. through the edict of 1499. Its most important points were again changed by the concordat concluded in 1516 between Francis I. and Leo X., which granted most of the demands of the pope, and, notwithstanding the protestations of the parliaments and provincial estates, remained valid until the revolution of 1789. The Gallican church became almost entirely dependent upon the kings, who often found it to their interest to strengthen the Gallican rather than the Roman tendencies. Thus, some of the decrees of the council of Trent were not received by France, being held to be incompatible with the laws of the kingdom and too favorable to the papal authority.

The most important event in the history of Gallicanism is the Declarations of the French clergy (Declarationes Cleri Gal-licani), which in 1G82, by order of Louis XIV., was drawn up by Bossuet, and defined the liberties and doctrines of the Gallican church in the following four articles: 1, kings and princes are in temporal matters subject to no spiritual power, and the latter can never absolve subjects from the oath of obedience; 2, the pope is subject to the decisions of an oecumenical council; 3, the power of the pope is moreover limited, as far as France is concerned, by the established prescriptions and usages of the Gallican church; 4, also in matters of faith the decisions of the pope are not infallible when not confirmed by the consent of the whole church. These propositions were proclaimed by a royal ordinance, to which all the instructions of the theological schools were to be conformed; but in Rome they were publicly burned by the common executioner. Louis XIV., in order to restore peace with the head of the church, soon revoked them, but his revocation was not received among the laws of the French state or church, and the articles therefore remained valid, and formed the legal palladium of the Gallican party.

The French revolution overthrew the whole Catholic church in France. Napoleon, as first consul of the republic, reestablished it as a state church by a concordat with Pius VII., in 1801. To the concordat he added, April 8, 1802, organic articles, which enacted that the proclamation of papal decrees depends upon the discretion of the government; that there shall always be an opportunity for an appeal to the council of state against the abuses of ecclesiastical power; and that the teachers in the seminaries shall be always bound by the four propositions of the Gallican clergy. The pope and a majority of the bishops protested against the validity of the organic articles, and a synod convoked in 1811 at Paris refused to declare the church of France independent of the pope. Louis XVIII. concluded, June 11,1817, a new concordat, by which that of 1801 was abolished, and that of 1516 restored. As, however, the chamber of deputies refused to ratify it, the new concordat never received legal sanction. Although the clergy had no opportunity to declare themselves in synods and councils on the relation of the Gallican church to Rome, it was generally known that a majority were in favor of strengthening the union with Rome, and opposed to defending anything in the national church which was regarded by Rome as un-Catholic. The July revolution of 1830 had but little influence on the inner development of the Gallican church.

Louis Philippe made as great concessions to the hierarchy as the origin of his own authority would allow. The bishops whom he appointed were mostly opposed to the Gallican tendencies. An attempt in 1831 by the abbe Chatel to establish a religious association under the name of the French Catholic church {eglise catholique francaise), was at once regarded by the Catholics as being not a movement within but a secession from the national church. The establishment of the republic in 1848 gave the church a liberty in ecclesiastical and educational affairs which she had not enjoyed for centuries. For the first time within more than 100 years the bishops held provincial and diocesan councils. It appeared that a difference of views still existed between them concerning the relation of the French church to Rome; but it was no longer the same party division as formerly, the Gallican party of old being found to be almost extinct. All the bishops agreed that it was desirable to strengthen the union between Rome and France, especially in order to give to the national church greater strength to resist the encroachments of the secular power. One of the clearest proofs of the spirit now prevailing is the gradual introduction of the Roman liturgy into every French diocese.

Under Napoleon III. the bishops claimed the right to meet without previous authorization in provincial councils; and the government, in order to avoid a conflict, permitted them to do so without deciding the legal question. Thiers, who as leader of the dynastic opposition under Louis Philippe had often insisted on the maintenance of the Gallican liberties, had as president in 1871-'3 political reasons to avoid all conflicts with the episcopate, which now more than ever is a unit in repudiating the principles of the old Gallicanism. Only a few prominent theologians protested in the name of the Gallican church against the definition of the pope's official infallibility; but after the proclamation of the decrees of the Vatican council, the dissentient French prelates gave in their adhesion.-Among the most important works on the Gallican church, its history and liberties, are: Count Joseph de Maistre, Du Pape (Lyons, 1819), and De l Eglise galli-cane dans son rapport avec le souverainpontife (Paris, 1821); Dupin, Les liberies de l Eglise gallicane (Paris, 1824); and Frayssinous, Les vrais principes de lEglise gallicane.