This section is from the "A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods" book, by George S. Cole. Also available from Amazon: A complete dictionary of dry goods and history of silk, cotton, linen, wool and other fibrous substances,: Including a full explanation of the modern processes ... together with various useful tables.
Bandana (Ban-Dan'-A). [From a Hindoo word Bandhnn, which means '* a mode of dyeing, in which the cloth is tied in different places to prevent the parts from receiving the dye."] A cheap cotton (sometimes of silk) handkerchief for men, with a red ground, ornamented with various colored spots. The cloth is first dyed a solid Turkey red, and the white pattern made by discharging the red with bleaching liquor in a powerful press. If other colors than white are to appear on the handkerchief, they are printed aftenward upon the white spots discharged for that purpose. The pattern to be discharged is cut out on two metal plates, of the full size of the handkerchief. A dozen or more handkerchiefs are laid between these plates, and then the pressure applied; the liquor being run on the uppermost plate, which is grooved on the upper side to receive it. The pressure on the cloth to make clean work (that is, to prevent the spreading of the liquor) is enormous, often exceeding 500 and 600 tons. The bleaching liquor destroys the red color in all those parts where the plates allow it to circulate, thus producing the ornamental figure. Bandanas are made in sizes from 12 inches square to 24 inches square, the price increasing with the sizes at even inche