Beads. [From Anglo-Saxon bede, a prayer] Small perforated ornaments, of round or oblong shape, worn by women in necklaces, bracelets and head-dresses; and also for ornamenting slippers, purses, watch guards and a variety of fancy articles. Beads are used by Catholics to keep them right as to the number of their prayers, one bead of the rosary being dropped every time a prayer is said. Beads are made of gold, diamond, amber, pearl, coral, garnet, steel, paste, wood, etc., but the greatest quantity are of glass manufacture. They were manufactured, much in the same form as now, by the Phoenecians more than 3,000 years ago. At present, they form a favorite article of traffic with all savage tribes and nations, often being the only medium of exchange in bartering with them. The manufacture of glass beads is simple. A short, thick rod of colored glass is made with a hole through the centre of it. This is drawn out in a heated state by two men running in opposite directions, and by this very long tubes are produced of the size of the beads required. These rods are chipped into short uniform pieces of the length of the bead. The holes in the pieces are then filled with sand and ashes by shaking them up together in a bowl. This is done to prevent welding when heated at the next operation. This consists of transferring them to a heated iron pan and agitated until the sharp angles are worn off and they assume a smooth, rounded form. Taken out, their bodies washed and cleaned to separate the ashes and sand, and strung by children, they form glass beads. In commerce they are known as the hollow, the tube and the bugle. The hollow are the most expensive kind, the price varying from 25 cents to $2.50 per bunch of twelve strands. Common black beads are sold from ten to twenty-five cents per pound.