This section is from the "A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods" book, by George S. Cole. Also available from Amazon: A complete dictionary of dry goods and history of silk, cotton, linen, wool and other fibrous substances,: Including a full explanation of the modern processes ... together with various useful tables.
Calender. A machine consisting of two or more steel cylinders revolving very nearly in contact, between which is passed a woven fabric, for finishing by pressure the surface of linen, cotton and other texile fabrics; often aided by steam heat communicated from the interior of the cylinders. The word calendering is a corruption of cylindering. The object is to give cloth a perfectly smooth, even and equal surface, and sometimes, to produce a glaze, as in jaconets, sateens, silesias, etc. The domestic processes of starching and ironing afford a simple illustration of the object and result of calendering. Before the final calendering the fabric is flatly smoothed by passing over warm cylinders. The fabric is then simply passed between plain cylinders, which produces the desired effect by flattening the threads. By means of a cylinder with a pattern raised upon it, the amount of this flattening can be made unequal on different parts of the cloth, producing a watered effect. Glazing is produced by the rollers being made to move with different velocities, so that one side of the fabric is rubbed as well as pressed by the surface of the roller moving the most rapidly. A copper roller is used for glazing, so hot that if the machine stops it burns the goods.