Fortifications

The principal fortifications in Austria-Hungary are: Cracow and Przemysl in Galicia; Komárom, the centre of the inland fortifications, Pétervárad, ó-Arad and Temesvár in Hungary; Serajewo, Mostar and Bilek in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Alpine frontiers, especially those in Tirol, have numerous fortifications, whose centre is formed by Trent and Franzensfeste; while all the military roads leading into Carinthia have been provided with strong defensive works, as at Malborgeth, Predil Pass, etc. The two capitals, Vienna and Budapest, are not fortified. On the Adriatic coast, the naval harbour of Pola is strongly fortified with sea and land defences; then come Trieste, and several places in Dalmatia, notably Zara and Cattaro.

Navy

The Austro-Hungarian navy is mainly a coast defence force, and includes also a flotilla of monitors for the Danube. It is administered by the naval department of the ministry of war. It consisted in 1905 of 9 modern battleships, 3 armoured cruisers, 5 cruisers, 4 torpedo gunboats, 20 destroyers and 26 torpedo boats. There was in hand at the same time a naval programme to build 12 armourclads, 5 second-class cruisers, 6 third-class cruisers, and a number of torpedo boats. The headquarters of the fleet are at Pola, which is the principal naval arsenal and harbour of Austria; while another great naval station is Trieste.

Trade

On the basis of the customs and commercial agreement between Austria and Hungary, concluded in 1867 and renewable every ten years, the following affairs, in addition to the common affairs of the monarchy, are in both states treated according to the same principles: - Commercial affairs, including customs legislation; legislation on the duties closely connected with industrial production - on beer, brandy, sugar and mineral oils; determination of legal tender and coinage, as also of the principles regulating the Austro-Hungarian Bank; ordinances in respect of such railways as affect the interests of both states. In conformity with the customs and commercial compact between the two states, renewed in 1899, the monarchy constitutes one identical customs and commercial territory, inclusive of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the principality of Liechtenstein.

The foreign trade of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy is shown in the following table: -

Year.

Imports.

Exports.

1900

£70,666,000

£80,916,000

1901

68,833,000

78,841,000

1902

71,666,000

79,708,000

1903

78,200,000

88,600,000

1904

85,200,000

86,200,000

1905

89,430,000

93,500,000

The following tables give the foreign trade of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy as regards raw material and manufactured goods: -

Imports.

Articles.

Value in Millions Sterling.

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

1904.

Raw material (including
articles of food; raw
material for agriculture
and industry; and mining
and smelting products.

brace

41.5

40.5

41.8

45.9

51.9

Semi-manufactured goods

9.6

9.6

10.3

10.6

10.8

Manufactured goods

19.5

18.7

19.5

21.6

22.5

Exports.

Articles.

Value in Millions Sterling.

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

1904.

Raw material (as above)

34.1

34.1

35.9

39

35.3

Semi-manufactured goods

12.6

11.1

11.1

12.4

12.6

Manufactured goods.

34.2

33.3

32.8

37.2

38.3

The most important place of derivation and of destination for the Austro-Hungarian trade is the German empire with about 40% of the imports, and about 60% of the exports. Next in importance comes Great Britain, afterwards India, Italy, the United States of America, Russia, France, Switzerland, Rumania, the Balkan states and South America in about the order named. The principal articles of import are cotton and cotton goods, wool and woollen goods, silk and silk goods, coffee, tobacco and metals. The principal articles of export are wood, sugar, cattle, glass and glassware, iron and ironware, eggs, cereals, millinery, fancy goods, earthenware and pottery, and leather goods.