Barbacena, an inland town of Brazil, in the state of Minas Geraes, 150 m. N.N.W. of Rio de Janeiro and about 3500 ft. above sea-level. The surrounding district is chiefly agricultural, producing coffee, sugar-cane, Indian corn and cattle, and the town has considerable commercial importance. It is also noted for its healthiness and possesses a large sanatorium much frequented by convalescents from Rio de Janeiro during the hot season. Barbacena was formerly a principal distributing centre for the mining districts of Minas Geraes, but this distinction was lost when the railways were extended beyond that point.