Notation: C6 B5b A5b F5 E5b D5 B4 A4 G4 E4 E6b B3b D6 E4b F4 A4b B4b C5 D5b E5 G5 A5 D6b B5.

Other evidences of the origin of the barrel-organ are not wanting. The inventory of the organs and other keyboard instruments belonging to the duke of Modena, drawn up in 1598, contains two entries of an organo Tedesco.[10] In England these organs were also known as "Dutch organs," and the name clung to the instrument even in its diminutive form of hand-organ of the itinerant musician. In Jedediah Morse's description of the manners and customs of the Netherlands,[11] we find the following allusion: - "The diversions of the Dutch differ not much from those of the English, who seem to have borrowed from them the neatness of their drinking booths, skittle and other grounds ... which form the amusements of the middle ranks, not to mention their hand-organs and other musical inventions." An illustration of the hand-organ of that period is given in Knight's London[12] being one of a collection of street views published by Dayes in 1789. In a description of Bartholomew Fair, as held at the beginning of the 18th century, is a further reference to the Dutch origin of the barrel-organ: - "A band at the west-end of the town, well known for playing on winter evenings before Spring Garden Coffee House, opposite Wigley's great exhibition room, consisted of a double drum, a Dutch organ, the tambourine, violin, pipes and the Turkish jingle used in the army.

This band was generally hired at one of the booths of the fair."[13] Mr Thomas Brown relates that one Mr Stephens, a Poultry author, proposed to parliament for any one that should presume to keep an organ in a Publick House to be fined £20 and made incapable of being an ale-draper for the future.[14] In 1737 Horace Walpole writes[15]: - "I am now in pursuit of getting the finest piece of music that ever was heard; it is a thing that will play eight tunes. Handel and all the great musicians say that it is beyond anything they can do, and this may be performed by the most ignorant person, and when you are weary of those eight tunes, you may have them changed for any other that you like." The organ was put in a lottery and fetched £1000.

There was a very small barrel-organ in use during the 18th and 19th centuries, known as the bird-organ (Fr. serinette, turlutaine, merline). One of these now in the collection of the Brussels Conservatoire is described by V. C. Mahillon.[16] The instrument is in the form of a book, on the back of which is the title "Le chant des oiseaux, Tome vi." There are ten pewter stopped pipes giving the scale of G with the addition of F♭ and A two octaves higher. Notation: G4 A5. The whole instrument measures approximately 8 × 5½ × 2¾ in. and plays eight tunes. Mozart wrote an Andante[17] for a small barrel-organ.

For an illustration of the construction of the barrel-organ during the 18th century, consult P. M. D. J. Engramelle, La Tonotechnie ou l'art de noter les cylindres et tout ce qui est susceptible de notage dans les instruments de concerts méchaniques (Paris, 1775), with engravings (not in the British Museum); and for a clear diagram of the modern instrument the article on "Automatic Appliances connected with Music," by Dr. E. J. Hopkins, in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. i. (1904), p. 134.

(K. S.)

[1] This practice had evidently not been adopted in Germany, as the following instance will show. The use of barrel-organs (Drehorgeln) in country churches was seriously recommended by an anonymous writer in two German papers at the beginning of the 19th century (Beobachter an der Spree, Berlin, 22nd October 1821, and in Markische Boten, Nos. 138 and 139, 1821). The organist Wilke of Leipzig published in reply an article in the Allgem. musik. Zeitung (1822, pp. 777 et seq.) in which "he very properly repudiated such a laughable recommendation."

[2] Archives générales du royaume de Belgique, Chambre des Comptes, No. 2, 449 ro. cf. 52 ro.; and Edmund van der Straeten, La Musique aux Pays-Bas, vol. vii. pp. 230-232.

[3] Van der Straeten, op. cit. p. 299.

[4] Van der Straeten, op. cit. p. 231.

[5] Solomon de Caus, Les Raisons des forces mouvantes (Frankfort, 1615), problems 25, 28, 29, 30.

[6] Historia utriusque cosmi (Oppenheim, 1617), t. i., experimentum viii. p. 483.

[7] Op. cit. problem 29 shows the arrangement of the bellows for the wind-supply. In problem 30 is drawn a large section of the barrel, showing six bars of music represented by the pin tablature, which can be actually deciphered by the help of the keyboard included in the drawing. These diagrams are admirably clear and of real technical value. A copy of this work is in the library of the British Museum.

[8] See also E. van der Straeten, who has translated Philips' setting into modern notation, op. cit. t. vi. pp. 506 and 510.

[9] See V. C. Mahillon, Catalogue descriptif (Brussels, 1896), No. 1137, p. 371.

[10] Tedesco was applied by Italians to both German and Dutch. Count Valdrighi, Musurgiana I. Serandola, Pianoforte, Salterio (Modena, 1879), pp. 27 and 28; and E. van der Straeten, op. cit. vol. vi. p. 122.

[11] Jedediah Morse American Geography, part ii. p. 334 (Boston, Mass., 1796).

[12] Knight's London, vol. i. p. 144.

[13] Hone's Every Day Book, i. p. 1248.

[14] Collection of all the Dialogues written by Mr Thomas Brown (London, 1704), p. 297.

[15] Hone's Every Day Book, ii. pp. 1452-1453.

[16] See Catalogue descriptif (Ghent, 1880), Nos. 461 and 462.

[17] Breitkopf and Härtel's Critically revised edition of Mozart's Works, series x. no. 10.