After unsuccessful attempts by the Upper House to introduce General election 1907. plural voting, the bill became law in January 1907, the peers insisting only upon the establishment of a fixed maximum number or numerus clausus, of non-hereditary peers, so as to prevent the resistance of the Upper Chamber from being overwhelmed at any critical moment by an influx of crown nominees appointed ad hoc. The general election which took place amid considerable enthusiasm on the 14th of May resulted in a sweeping victory for the Social Democrats whose number rose from 11 to 87; in a less complete triumph for the Christian Socialists who increased from 27 to 67; and in the success of the extremer over the conservative elements in all races. A classification of the groups in the new Chamber presents many difficulties, but the following statement is approximately accurate. It must be premised that, in order to render the Christian Socialist or Lueger party the strongest group in parliament, an amalgamation was effected between them and the conservative Catholic party: -

German Conservatives -

Total.

Christian Socialists

96

German Agrarians

19

German Liberals -

Progressives

15

Populists

29

Pan-German radicals (Wolf group)

13

Unattached Pan-Germans

3

" Progressives

2

Czechs -

-

177

Czech Agrarians

28

Young Czechs

18

Czech Clericals

17

Old Czechs

7

Czech National Socialists

9

Realists

2

Unattached Czech

1

Social Democrats -

-

82

Of all races

87

87

Poles -

Democrats

26

Conservatives

15

Populists

18

Centre

12

Independent Socialist

1

Ruthenes -

-

72

National Democrats

25

Old or Russophil Ruthenes

5

Slovenes -

-

30

Clericals

17

Southern Slav Club -

Croats

brace

20

37

Serbs

Slovene Liberals

Italians -

Clerical Populists

11

Liberals

4

-

15

Rumanians -

Rumanian Club

5

5

Jews -

Zionists

4

Democrats

1

5

-

Unclassified, vacancies, &c

6

6

- -

516

The legislature elected by universal suffrage worked fairly smoothly during the first year of its existence. The estimates were voted with regularity, racial animosity was somewhat less prominent, and some large issues were debated. The desire not to disturb the emperor's Diamond Jubilee year by untoward scenes doubtless contributed to calm political passion, and it was celebrated in 1908 with complete success. But it was no sooner over than the crisis over the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is dealt with above, eclipsed all purely domestic affairs in the larger European question.

(H. W. S.)