Thomas Baker (1656-1740), English antiquary, was born on the 14th of September 1656 at Lanchester, Durham. He was the grandson of Colonel Baker of Crook, Durham, who won fame in the civil war by his defence of Newcastle against the Scots. He was educated at the free school at Durham, and proceeded thence in 1672 to St John's College, Cambridge, where he afterwards obtained a fellowship. Lord Crew, bishop of Durham, collated him to the rectory of Long-Newton in his diocese in 1687, and intended to give him that of Sedgefield with a prebend had not Baker incurred his displeasure by refusing to read James II.'s Declaration of Indulgence. The bishop who disgraced him for this refusal, and who was afterwards specially excepted from William's Act of Indemnity, took the oaths to that king and kept his bishopric till his death. Baker, on the other hand, though he had opposed James, refused to take the oaths to William; he resigned Long-Newton on the 1st of August 1690, and retired to St John's, in which he was protected till the 20th of January 1716-1717, when he and one-and-twenty others were deprived of their fellowships.

After the passing of the Registering Act in 1723, he could not be prevailed on to comply with its requirements by registering his annuity of £40, although that annuity, left him by his father, with £20 per annum from his elder brother's collieries, was now his whole subsistence. He retained a lively sense of the injuries he had suffered; and inscribed himself in all his own books, as well as in those which he gave to the college library, socius ejectus, and in some rector ejectus. He continued to reside in the college as commoner-master till his sudden death from apoplexy on the 2nd of July 1740. The whole of his valuable books and manuscripts he bequeathed to the university. The only works he published were, Reflections on Learning, showing the Insufficiency thereof in its several particulars, in order to evince the usefulness and necessity of Revelation (Lond., 1709-1710) and the preface to Bishop Fisher's Funeral Sermon for Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby (1708) - both without his name.

His valuable manuscript collections relative to the history and antiquities of the university of Cambridge, amounting to thirty-nine volumes in folio and three in quarto, are divided between the British Museum and the public library at Cambridge, - the former possessing twenty-three volumes, the latter sixteen in folio and three in quarto.

The life of Baker was written by Robert Masters (Camb., 1784), and by Horace Walpole in the quarto edition of his works.