Of older works, though often uncritical, R. P. Henao's Averiguaciones de las Antiguedades de Cantabria (Salamanca, 1688) is still valuable (new edition, 1894). For all that relates to the manners and customs of the people, Corografía de Guipúzcoa, by R. P. M. de Larramendi, S.J., is indispensable. Written about 1750, it was first printed in Barcelona in 1882 (later edition, San Sebastian, 1896). There are excellent chapters on the Basque Provinces in the Introduccion a la Historia Natural, y a la Geografía Fisica de España, by D. Guillermo Bowles (Madrid, 1775). El Guipuzcoano instruido (San Sebastian, 1780), in the form of a dictionary, gives full details of the life, the rights, duties and obligations of a Basque citizen of that date. The Diccionario Geografico-Historico de España, tome i., ii. El Reyno de Navarra Senorio de Vizcaya y Provincias de álava y Guipúzcoa (Madrid, 1802), is full of local information, but with a strong bias in favour of the central government.

The best works on the various editions of the fueros are Historia de la Legislacion ... civil de España, by A. Marichalar, Marques de Montesa, and Cayetano Manrique; Fueros de Navarra Vizcaya, Guipúzcoa y álava (Madrid, 2nd ed., 1868); and the Noticia de las cosas memorables de Guipúzcoa, by D. Pablo de Gorosabel (Tolosa, 1899-1901), the last volume of which by C. de Echegaray, gives the legislative acts down to May 1900. Las Provincias Vascongadas a Fines de la Edad Media, by D. Carmelo de Echegaray (San Sebastian, 1895), is excellent. There is a Historia de Bizcaya, by Dr E. de Labayru, and a Compendio of the same by Fermin Herran (Bilbao, 1903). D. Carmelo de Echegaray, Cronista de las Provincias Vascongadas, with his colleagues D. Serapio Mugica, F. Soraluce, and other historians, has examined, catalogued and indexed the municipal archives of all the towns, without which no true history can be written. Several discoveries of important missing documents and MSS. were thus made.

The development of the Basque mining industry is fully described in Las Minas de hierro de la provincia de Vizcaya, progressos realizados en esta region derde 1870 hasta 1899 (Bilbao, 1900).

(W. We.)