The work of laying bricks or tiles as paving falls to the lot of the bricklayer. Paving formed of ordinary bricks laid flat or on their Brick paving. edges was once in general use, but is now almost abandoned in favour of floors of special tiles or cement paving, the latter being practically non-porous and therefore more sanitary and cleaner. Special bricks of extremely hard texture are made for stable and similar paving, having grooves worked on the face to assist drainage and afford good foothold. A bed of concrete 6 in. thick is usually provided under paving, or when the bricks are placed on edge the concrete for external paving may be omitted and the bricks bedded in sand, the ground being previously well rammed. The side joints of the bricks are grouted in with lime or cement. Dutch clinkers are small, hard paving bricks burned at a high temperature and of a light yellow colour; they are 6 in. long, 3 in. wide, 1&FRAC12; in. thick. A variety of paving tile called "oven tiles" is of similar material to the ordinary red brick, and in size is 10 or 12 in. square and 1 to 2 in. thick.
An immense variety of ornamental paving and walling tiles is now manufactured of different colours, sizes and shapes, and the use of these for lining sculleries, lavatories, bathrooms, provision shops, etc., makes for cleanliness and improved sanitary conditions. Besides, however, being put to these uses, tiles are often used in the ornamentation of buildings, externally as well as internally.
Mosaic work is composed of small pieces of marble, stone, glass or pottery, laid as paving or wall lining, usually in some ornamental pattern or design. A firm bed of concrete is required, the pieces of material being fixed in a float of cement about half or three-quarters of an inch thick. Roman mosaic is formed with cubes of marble of various colours pressed into the float. A less costly paving may be obtained by strewing irregularly-shaped marble chips over the floated surface: these are pressed into the cement with a plasterer's hand float, and the whole is then rolled with an iron roller. This is called "terazzo mosaic." In either the Roman or terazzo method any patterns or designs that are introduced are first worked in position, the ground-work being filled in afterwards. For the use of cement for paving see Plaster.
The principal publications on brickwork are as follows: - Rivington, Notes on Building Construction, vols. i. ii. iii.; Col. H.E. Seddon, Aide Memoir, vol. ii.; Specification; J.P. Allen, Building Construction; F.E. Kidder, Building Construction and Superintendence, part i. (1903); Longmans & Green, Building Construction; E. Dobson, Bricks and Tiles; Henry Adams, Building Construction; C.F. Mitchell, Building Construction, vols. i. ii.; E. Street, Brick and Marble Architecture in Italy.