The attention of the few scholars at work on the subject being directed to the necessary first step of publishing the ancient authorities, the work of exploring them, of analysing and classifying the data they contain, has as yet been very imperfectly done. The annexed list contains only the most important works.


Pāli Text Society, 57 vols.; Jātaka, 7 vols., ed. Fausböll, 1877-1897; Vinaya, 5 vols., ed. Oldenberg, 1879-1883; Dhammapada, ed. Fausböll, 2nd ed., 1900; Divyāvadāna, ed. Cowell and Neil, 1882; Mahāvastu, ed. Senart, 3 vols., 1882-1897; Buddha Carita, ed. Cowell, 1892; Milinda-pañho, ed. Trenckner, 1880.


Vinaya Texts, by Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, 3 vols., 1881-1885; Dhammapada, by Max Müller, and Sutta Nipata, by Fausböll, 1881; Questions of King Milinda, by Rhys Davids, 2 vols., 1890-1894; Buddhist Suttas, by Rhys Davids, 1881; Saddharma Pundarīka, by Kern, 1884; Buddhist Mahāyāna Texts, by Cowell and Max Müller, 1894 - all the above in the "Sacred Books of the East"; Jātaka, vol. i., by Rhys Davids, under the title Buddhist Birth Stories, 1880; vols. i.-vi., by Chalmers, Neil, Francis, and Rouse, 1895-1897; Buddhism in Translations, by Warren, 1896; Buddhistische Anthologie, by Neumann, 1892. Lieder der Mönche und Nonnen, 1899, by the same; Dialogues of the Buddha, by Rhys Davids, 1899; Die Reden Gotamo Buddhas, by Neumann, 3 vols., 1899-1903; Buddhist Psychology, by Mrs Rhys Davids, 1900.

Manuals, Monographs, Etc

Buddhism, by Rhys Davids, 12mo, 20th thousand, 1903; Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre und seine Gemeinde, by Oldenberg, 5th edition, 1906; Der Buddhismus und seine Geschichte in Indien, by Kern, 1882; Der Buddhismus, by Edmund Hardy, 1890; American Lectures, Buddhism, by Rhys Davids, 1896; Inscriptions de Piyadasi, by Senart, 2 vols., 1881-1886; Mara und Buddha, by Windisch, 1895; Buddhist India, by Rhys Davids, 1903.

(T. W. R. D.)

[1] That is by the Arahat, the title the Buddha always uses of himself. He does not call himself the Buddha, and his followers never address him as such.

[2] One very ancient commentary on the Path has been preserved in three places in the canon: Dīgha, ii. 305-307 and 311-313, Majjhima, iii. 251, and Samyutta, v. 8.

[3] Mahāli Suttanta; translated in Rhys Davids' Dialogues of the Buddha, vol. i. p. 201 (cf. p. 204).

[4] See Iti-vuttaka, p. 44; Samyutta, iii. 57.

[5] See Dīgha, ii. 28; Jāt. v. 48, ii. 80.

[6] Burnett, Early Greek Philosophy, p. 149.

[7] Katha Up. 2, 10; Bhag. Gītā, 2, 14; 9, 33.

[8] The Anatta-lakkhana Sutta (Vinaya, i. 13 = Samyutta, iii. 66 and iv. 34), translated in Vinaya Texts, i. 100-102.

[9] See article on "Buddhist Schools of Thought," by Rhys Davids, in the J.R.A.S. for 1892.

[10] Questions of King Milinda, translated by Rhys Davids (Oxford, 1890-1894), vol. i. pp. 40, 41, 85-87; vol. ii. pp. 21-25, 86-89.

[11] Majjhima, iii. 251, cf. Samyutta, v. 8.

[12] Dīgha, ii. 290-315. Majjhima, i. 55 et seq. Cf. Rhys Davids' Dialogues of the Buddha, i. 81.

[13] No. 8 in the Sutta Nipata (p. 26 of Fausböll's edition). It is translated by Fausböll in vol. x. of the S.B.E., and by Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 109.

[14] Dīgha, ii. 186-187.

[15] Majjhima, i. 129.

[16] Iti-vuttaka, pp. 19-21.

[17] On the details of these see Dīgha, i. 71-73, translated by Rhys Davids in Dialogues of the Buddha, i. 82-84.

[18] Dīgha, i. 74.

[19] Samyutta, iv. 251, 261.

[20] Phaedo, 69 et seq. The idea is there also put forward in connexion with a belief in transmigration.

[21] Samyutta, iv. 302.

[22] Majjhima, iii. 99 et seq.

[23] The history of the Indian doctrine of Karma has yet to be written. On the Buddhist side see Rhys Davids' Hibbert Lectures, pp. 73-120, and Dahlke, Aufsatze zum Verstandnis des Buddhismus (Berlin, 1903), i. 92-106, and ii. l-11.

[24] For instance, Majjhima, i. 163-166

[25] Anguttara, iii. 119.

[26] Dīgha, i. 38.

[27] See Journal of the Pāli Text Society, 1896, pp. 87-92.