Calafat, a town of Rumania in the department of Doljiu; on the river Danube, opposite the Bulgarian fortress of Vidin. Pop. (1900) 7113. Calafat is an important centre of the grain trade, and is connected by a branch line with the principal Walachian railways, and by a steam ferry with Vidin. It was founded in the 14th century by Genoese colonists, who employed large numbers of workmen (Calfats) in repairing ships - which industry gave its name to the place. In 1854 a Russian force was defeated at Calafat by the Turks under Ahmed Pasha, who surprised the enemy's camp.