Indians - Brown

100,000

The only coloured native races of Canada are the Red Indians, many in tribal variety, but few in number.

Summary

Native Populations:

India

294,191,379

Ceylon and Eastern Colonies

5,144,954

West Indies

1,912,655

South Africa

5,211,329

British Central Africa

2,000,000

East Africa

7,425,000

West Africa

18,863,000

Australasia and Islands

824,000

Canada

100,000

- - - - - -
335,672,317

White populations

53,040,468

Total

388,712,785

This is without taking into account the population of the lesser crown colonies or allowing for the increase likely to be shown by later censuses. Throughout the empire, and notably in the United Kingdom, there is among the white races a considerable sprinkling of Jewish blood.

The latest calculation of the entire population of the world, including a liberal estimate of 650,000,000 for peoples not brought under any census, gives a total of something over 1,500,000,000. The population of the empire may therefore be calculated as amounting to something more than one-fourth of the population of the world.

It is a matter of first importance in the geographical distribution of the empire that the five principal divisions, the United Divisions. Kingdom, South Africa, India, Australia and Canada are separated from each other by the three great oceans of the world. The distance as usually calculated in nautical miles: from an English port to the Cape of Good Hope is 5840 m.; from the Cape of Good Hope to Bombay is 4610; from Bombay to Melbourne is 5630; from Melbourne to Auckland is 1830; from Auckland to Vancouver is 6210; from Halifax to Liverpool is 2744. From a British port direct to Bombay by way of the Mediterranean it is 6272; from a British port by the same route to Sydney 11,548 m. These great distances have necessitated the acquisition of intermediate ports suitable for coaling stations on the trade routes, and have determined the position of many of the lesser crown colonies which are held simply for military and commercial purposes. Such are the Bermudas, Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, Ceylon, the Straits Settlements, Labuan, Hong-Kong, which complete the chain of connexion on the eastern route, and such on other routes are the lesser West African stations, Ascension, St. Helena, the Mauritius and Seychelles, the Falklands, Tristan da Cunha, and the groups of the western Pacific. Other annexations of the British empire have been rocky islets of the northern Pacific required for the purpose of telegraph stations in connexion with an all-British cable.

For purposes of political administration the empire falls into the three sections of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the dependencies of the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man; the Indian empire, consisting of British India and the feudatory native states; and the colonial empire, comprising all other colonies and dependencies.

In the modern sense of extension beyond the limits of the United Kingdom the growth of the empire is of comparatively Growth. recent date. The Channel Islands became British as a part of the Norman inheritance of William the Conqueror. The Isle of Man, which was for a short time held in conquest by Edward I. and restored, was sold by its titular sovereign to Sir William Scrope, earl of Wiltshire, in 1393, and by his subsequent attainder for high treason and the confiscation of his estates, became a fief of the English crown. It was granted by Henry IV. in 1406 to Sir John Stanley, K.C., ancestor of the earls of Derby, by whom it was held till 1736, when it passed to James Murray, 2nd duke of Atholl, as heir-general of the 10th earl. It was inherited by his daughter Charlotte, wife of the 3rd duke of Atholl, who sold it to the crown for £70,000 and an annuity of £2000. With these exceptions and the nominal possession taken of Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, all the territorial acquisitions of the empire have been made in the 17th and subsequent centuries.

The following is a list of the British colonies and dependencies (other than those belonging to the Indian empire) together with a summary statement of the date and method of their acquisition. Arranged in chronological order they give some idea of the rate of growth of the empire. The dates are not, however, in all cases those in which British sovereignty was established. They indicate in some instances only the first definite step, such as the building of a fort, the opening of a trading station, or other act, which led later to the incorporation in the empire of the country indicated. In the case of Australian states or Canadian provinces originally part of other states or provinces the date is that, approximately, of the first settlement of British in the district named; e.g. there were British colonists in Saskatchewan in the last half of the 18th century, but the province was not constituted until 1905. Save where otherwise stated, British authority has been continuous from the first date mentioned in the table.

Reference should be made to the articles on the various colonies.

Name.

Date.

Method of Acquisition.

Newfoundland

1583

Possession taken by Sir H. Gilbert for the crown.

17th Century.

Barbados

1605-1625

Settlement.

Bermudas

1609

"

Gambia

c. 1618

" A second time in 1816.

St Christopher

1623

" Did not become wholly British until 1713.

Novia Scotia

1628

" Ceded to France 1632; recovered 1713.

Nevis

1628

"

Montserrat

1632

"

Antigua

1632

"

Honduras

1638

"

St Lucia

1638

" Finally passed to Great Britain in 1803.

Gold Coast

c. 1650

Settlement. Danish forts bought 1850, Dutch forts 1871. Northern Territories added 1897.

St Helena

1651

Settled by East India Co. Government vested in British crown 1833.

Jamaica

1655

Conquest.

Bahamas

1666

Settlement.

Virgin Islands

1666-1672

Settlement and conquest.

N.W. Territories of Canada

1669

Settlement under royal charter of Hudson's Bay Co. Purchased from imp. gov. 1869, and transferred to Canada 1870.

Turks and Caicos Is.

1678

Settlement.

18th Century.

Gibraltar

1704

Capitulation.

New Brunswick

1713

Cession.

Prince Edward Is.

1758

Conquest.

Ontario

1759-1790

With New Brunswick and Nova

Quebec

1759-1790

Scotia constituted Dominion of Canada 1867. Prince Edward Is. enters the confederation 1873. In 1880 all British possessions (other than Newfoundland) in North America annexed to the Dominion.

Dominica

1761

Conquest.

St Vincent

1762

Capitulation.

Grenada

1762

"

Tobago

1763

Cession. Afterwards in French possession. Reconquered 1803.

Falkland Is.

1765

Settlement. Reoccupied 1832.

Saskatchewan

1766

Settlement. Separation from N.W. Territories of Canada 1905.

Pitcairn I.

1780

Settlement.

Straits Settlements

1786 to 1824

Settlement and cession. Vested (1858) in crown by E.I. Co. Transferred from Indian to colonial possessions 1867. Malacca in British occupation 1795-1818.

Sierra Leone

1787

Settlement.

Alberta

c. 1788

Separated from N. W. Territories of Canada 1905.

New South Wales

1788

Settlement.

Ceylon

1795

Capitulation.

Trinidad

1797

"

Malta

1800

"

19th Century.

British Guiana

1803

Capitulation.

Tasmania

1803

Settlement.

Cape of Good Hope

1806

Capitulation. Present limits not attained until 1895. First British occupation 1795-1803.

Seychelles

1806

Capitulation.

Mauritius

1810

"

Manitoba

1811

Settlement by Red River or Selkirk colony. Created province of Canada 1870.

Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

1815

Military occupation.

B. Columbia and Vancouver Island

1821

Settlement under Hudson's Bay Co. Entered Canadian confederation 1871.

Natal

1824

Settlement. Natal Boers submit 1843.

Queensland

1824

Separated from New South Wales 1859.

West Australia

1826

Settlement.

Victoria

1834

Separated from New South Wales 1851.

South Australia

1836

Settlement.

New Zealand

1840

Settlement and treaty.

Hong-Kong

1841

Treaties. Kowloon on the mainland added in 1860; additional area leased 1898.

Labuan

1846

Cession. Incorporated in Straits Settlements 1906.

Lagos

1861

Cession. South Nigeria amalgamated with Lagos, under style of Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria 1906.

Basutoland

1868

Annexation.

Fiji

1874

Cession.

W. Pacific Islands, including including Union, Ellice, Gilbert, Southern Solomon, and other groups

1877

High commission created by order in council, giving jurisdiction over islands not included in other colonial governments, nor within jurisdiction of other civilized powers. Protectorates declared over all these islands by 1900.

Federated Malay States

1874-1895

Treaty.

Cyprus

1878

Occupied by treaty.

North Borneo

1881

Treaty and settlement under royal charter. Protectorate assumed 1888.

Papua

1884

Protectorate declared.

Nigeria

1884-1886

Treaty, conquest and settlement under royal charter. Chartered Co.'s territory transferred to crown, and whole divided into North and South Nigeria 1900.

Somaliland

1884-1886

Occupation and cession. Protectorate declared 1887.

Bechuanaland

1885-1891

Protectorate declared. Southern portion annexed to Cape Colony 1895.

Zululand

1887

Annexation. Incorporated in Natal 1897.

Sarawak

1888

Protectorate declared.

Brunei

1888

" "

British East Africa

1888

Treaty, conquest and settlement under royal charter. Transferred to crown 1895.

Rhodesia

1888-1893

Treaty, conquest and settlement under royal charter.

Zanzibar

1890

Protectorate declared.

Uganda

1890-1896

Treaty and protectorate.

Nyasaland

1891

Protectorate declared.

Ashanti

1896

Military occupation.

Wei-hai-wei

1898

Lease from China.

Pacific Islands -

- Christmas, Fanning, Penrhyn, Suvarov

1898

Annexed for purposes of projected Pacific cable.

- Choiseul and Isabel Is. (Solomon Group)

1899

Cession.

- Tonga and Niué

1900

Protectorate declared.

Orange Free State

1900

Annexation. Formerly British 1848-1854.

Transvaal and Swaziland

1900

Annexation. Formerly British 1877-1881.

20th Century.

Kelantan, Trengganu, etc.

1909

Cession from Siam.

In the Pacific are also Bird Island, Bramble Cay, Cato Island, Cook Islands, Danger Islands, Ducie Island, Dudosa, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Kermadec Islands, Macquarie Island, Manihiki Islands, Nassau Island, Palmerston Island, Palmyra Island, Phoenix Group, Purdy Group, Raine Island, Rakaanga Island, Rotumah Island, Surprise Island, Washington or New York Island, Willis Group and Wreck Reef.

In the Indian Ocean there are, besides the colonies already mentioned, Rodriguez, the Chagos Islands, St Brandon Islands, Amirante Islands, Aldabra, Kuria Muria Islands, Maldive Islands and some other small groups.

In certain dependencies the sovereignty of Great Britain is not absolute. The island of Cyprus is nominally still part of the Turkish empire, but in 1878 was handed over to Great Britain for occupation and administration; Great Britain now making to the Porte on account of the island an annual payment of £5000. The administration is in the hands of an official styled high commissioner, who is invested with the powers usually conferred on a colonial governor. In Zanzibar and other regions of equatorial Africa the native rulers retain considerable powers; in the Far East certain areas are held on lease from China.