Indians - Brown
The only coloured native races of Canada are the Red Indians, many in tribal variety, but few in number.
Ceylon and Eastern Colonies
Australasia and Islands
- - - - - -
This is without taking into account the population of the lesser crown colonies or allowing for the increase likely to be shown by later censuses. Throughout the empire, and notably in the United Kingdom, there is among the white races a considerable sprinkling of Jewish blood.
The latest calculation of the entire population of the world, including a liberal estimate of 650,000,000 for peoples not brought under any census, gives a total of something over 1,500,000,000. The population of the empire may therefore be calculated as amounting to something more than one-fourth of the population of the world.
It is a matter of first importance in the geographical distribution of the empire that the five principal divisions, the United Divisions. Kingdom, South Africa, India, Australia and Canada are separated from each other by the three great oceans of the world. The distance as usually calculated in nautical miles: from an English port to the Cape of Good Hope is 5840 m.; from the Cape of Good Hope to Bombay is 4610; from Bombay to Melbourne is 5630; from Melbourne to Auckland is 1830; from Auckland to Vancouver is 6210; from Halifax to Liverpool is 2744. From a British port direct to Bombay by way of the Mediterranean it is 6272; from a British port by the same route to Sydney 11,548 m. These great distances have necessitated the acquisition of intermediate ports suitable for coaling stations on the trade routes, and have determined the position of many of the lesser crown colonies which are held simply for military and commercial purposes. Such are the Bermudas, Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, Ceylon, the Straits Settlements, Labuan, Hong-Kong, which complete the chain of connexion on the eastern route, and such on other routes are the lesser West African stations, Ascension, St. Helena, the Mauritius and Seychelles, the Falklands, Tristan da Cunha, and the groups of the western Pacific. Other annexations of the British empire have been rocky islets of the northern Pacific required for the purpose of telegraph stations in connexion with an all-British cable.
For purposes of political administration the empire falls into the three sections of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the dependencies of the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man; the Indian empire, consisting of British India and the feudatory native states; and the colonial empire, comprising all other colonies and dependencies.
In the modern sense of extension beyond the limits of the United Kingdom the growth of the empire is of comparatively Growth. recent date. The Channel Islands became British as a part of the Norman inheritance of William the Conqueror. The Isle of Man, which was for a short time held in conquest by Edward I. and restored, was sold by its titular sovereign to Sir William Scrope, earl of Wiltshire, in 1393, and by his subsequent attainder for high treason and the confiscation of his estates, became a fief of the English crown. It was granted by Henry IV. in 1406 to Sir John Stanley, K.C., ancestor of the earls of Derby, by whom it was held till 1736, when it passed to James Murray, 2nd duke of Atholl, as heir-general of the 10th earl. It was inherited by his daughter Charlotte, wife of the 3rd duke of Atholl, who sold it to the crown for £70,000 and an annuity of £2000. With these exceptions and the nominal possession taken of Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, all the territorial acquisitions of the empire have been made in the 17th and subsequent centuries.
The following is a list of the British colonies and dependencies (other than those belonging to the Indian empire) together with a summary statement of the date and method of their acquisition. Arranged in chronological order they give some idea of the rate of growth of the empire. The dates are not, however, in all cases those in which British sovereignty was established. They indicate in some instances only the first definite step, such as the building of a fort, the opening of a trading station, or other act, which led later to the incorporation in the empire of the country indicated. In the case of Australian states or Canadian provinces originally part of other states or provinces the date is that, approximately, of the first settlement of British in the district named; e.g. there were British colonists in Saskatchewan in the last half of the 18th century, but the province was not constituted until 1905. Save where otherwise stated, British authority has been continuous from the first date mentioned in the table.
Reference should be made to the articles on the various colonies.
Method of Acquisition.
Possession taken by Sir H. Gilbert for the crown.
" A second time in 1816.
" Did not become wholly British until 1713.
" Ceded to France 1632; recovered 1713.
" Finally passed to Great Britain in 1803.
Settlement. Danish forts bought 1850, Dutch forts 1871. Northern Territories added 1897.
Settled by East India Co. Government vested in British crown 1833.
Settlement and conquest.
N.W. Territories of Canada
Settlement under royal charter of Hudson's Bay Co. Purchased from imp. gov. 1869, and transferred to Canada 1870.
Turks and Caicos Is.
Prince Edward Is.
With New Brunswick and Nova
Scotia constituted Dominion of Canada 1867. Prince Edward Is. enters the confederation 1873. In 1880 all British possessions (other than Newfoundland) in North America annexed to the Dominion.
Cession. Afterwards in French possession. Reconquered 1803.
Settlement. Reoccupied 1832.
Settlement. Separation from N.W. Territories of Canada 1905.
1786 to 1824
Settlement and cession. Vested (1858) in crown by E.I. Co. Transferred from Indian to colonial possessions 1867. Malacca in British occupation 1795-1818.
Separated from N. W. Territories of Canada 1905.
New South Wales
Cape of Good Hope
Capitulation. Present limits not attained until 1895. First British occupation 1795-1803.
Settlement by Red River or Selkirk colony. Created province of Canada 1870.
Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
B. Columbia and Vancouver Island
Settlement under Hudson's Bay Co. Entered Canadian confederation 1871.
Settlement. Natal Boers submit 1843.
Separated from New South Wales 1859.
Separated from New South Wales 1851.
Settlement and treaty.
Treaties. Kowloon on the mainland added in 1860; additional area leased 1898.
Cession. Incorporated in Straits Settlements 1906.
Cession. South Nigeria amalgamated with Lagos, under style of Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria 1906.
W. Pacific Islands, including including Union, Ellice, Gilbert, Southern Solomon, and other groups
High commission created by order in council, giving jurisdiction over islands not included in other colonial governments, nor within jurisdiction of other civilized powers. Protectorates declared over all these islands by 1900.
Federated Malay States
Occupied by treaty.
Treaty and settlement under royal charter. Protectorate assumed 1888.
Treaty, conquest and settlement under royal charter. Chartered Co.'s territory transferred to crown, and whole divided into North and South Nigeria 1900.
Occupation and cession. Protectorate declared 1887.
Protectorate declared. Southern portion annexed to Cape Colony 1895.
Annexation. Incorporated in Natal 1897.
Treaty, conquest and settlement under royal charter. Transferred to crown 1895.
Treaty, conquest and settlement under royal charter.
Treaty and protectorate.
Lease from China.
Pacific Islands -
- Christmas, Fanning, Penrhyn, Suvarov
Annexed for purposes of projected Pacific cable.
- Choiseul and Isabel Is. (Solomon Group)
- Tonga and Niué
Orange Free State
Annexation. Formerly British 1848-1854.
Transvaal and Swaziland
Annexation. Formerly British 1877-1881.
Kelantan, Trengganu, etc.
Cession from Siam.
In the Pacific are also Bird Island, Bramble Cay, Cato Island, Cook Islands, Danger Islands, Ducie Island, Dudosa, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Kermadec Islands, Macquarie Island, Manihiki Islands, Nassau Island, Palmerston Island, Palmyra Island, Phoenix Group, Purdy Group, Raine Island, Rakaanga Island, Rotumah Island, Surprise Island, Washington or New York Island, Willis Group and Wreck Reef.
In the Indian Ocean there are, besides the colonies already mentioned, Rodriguez, the Chagos Islands, St Brandon Islands, Amirante Islands, Aldabra, Kuria Muria Islands, Maldive Islands and some other small groups.
In certain dependencies the sovereignty of Great Britain is not absolute. The island of Cyprus is nominally still part of the Turkish empire, but in 1878 was handed over to Great Britain for occupation and administration; Great Britain now making to the Porte on account of the island an annual payment of £5000. The administration is in the hands of an official styled high commissioner, who is invested with the powers usually conferred on a colonial governor. In Zanzibar and other regions of equatorial Africa the native rulers retain considerable powers; in the Far East certain areas are held on lease from China.