Leopoldo Marco Antonio Caldani (1725-1813), Italian anatomist and physician, was born at Bologna in 1725. After studying under G.B. Morgagni at Padua, he began to teach practical medicine at Bologna, but in consequence of the intrigues of which he was the object he returned to Padua, where in 1771 he succeeded Morgagni in the chair of anatomy. He continued to lecture until 1805 and died at Padua in 1813. His works include Institutiones pathologicae (1772), Institutiones physiologicae (1773) and Icones anatomicae (1801-1813).

His brother, Petronio Maria Caldani (1735-1808), was professor of mathematics at Bologna, and was described by J. le R. D'Alembert as the "first geometer and algebraist of Italy."