Butler's works published during his life include, besides Hudibras: To the Memory of the most renowned Du Vall: A Pindaric Ode (1671); and a prose pamphlet against the Puritans, Two Letters, one from J. Audland ... to W. Prynne, the other Prynne's Answer (1672). In 1715-1717 three volumes, entitled Posthumous Works in Prose and Verse ... with a key to Hudibras by Sir Roger l'Estrange ... were published with great success. Most of the contents, however, are generally rejected as spurious. The poet's papers, now in the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 32,625-6), remained in the hands of his friend William Longueville, and after his death were left untouched until 1759, when Robert Thyer, keeper of the public library at Manchester, edited two volumes of verse and prose under the title of Genuine Remains in Verse and Prose of Mr Samuel Butler. This collection contained The Elephant in the Moon, a satire on the Royal Society; a series of sketches in prose, Characters; and some satirical poems and prose pamphlets. Another edition, Poetical Remains, was issued by Thyer in 1827. In 1726 Hogarth executed some illustrations to Hudibras, which are among his earliest but not, perhaps, happiest productions.

In 1744 Dr Zachary Grey published an edition of Hudibras, with copious and learned annotations; and an additional volume of Critical and Historical and Explanatory Notes in 1752. Grey's has formed the basis of all subsequent editions.

Other pieces published separately and ascribed to Butler are: A Letter from Mercurius Civicus to Mercurius Rusticus, or London's Confession but not repentance ... (1643), represented in vol. iv. of Somers's tracts; Mola Asinarum, on the unreasonable and insupportable burthen now pressed ... upon this groaning nation ... (1659), included in his posthumous works, which is supposed to have been written by John Prynne, though Wood ascribes it to Butler; The Acts and monuments of our late parliament ... (1659, printed 1710), of which a continuation appeared in 1659; a "character" of Charles I. (1671); A New Ballad of King Edward and Jane Shore ... (1671); A Congratulatory poem ... to Sir Joseph Sheldon ... (1675); The Geneva Ballad, or the occasional conformist display'd (1674); The Secret history of the Calves head club, compleat ... (4th edition, 1707); The Morning's Salutation, or a friendly conference between a puritan preacher and a family of his flock ... (reprinted, Dublin, 1714). Two tracts of his appear in Somers's Tracts, vol. vii.; he contributed to Ovid's Epistles translated by several hands (1680); and works by him are included in Miscellaneous works, written by ... George Duke of Buckingham ... also State Poems ... (by various hands) (1704); and in The Grove ... (1721), a poetic miscellany, is a "Satyr against Marriage," not found in his works.

The life of Butler was written by an anonymous author, said by William Oldys to be Sir James Astrey, and prefixed to the edition of 1704. The writer professes to supplement and correct the notice given by Anthony à Wood in Athenae Oxonienses. Dr Threadneedle Russel Nash, a Worcestershire antiquarian, supplied some additional facts in an edition of 1793. See the Aldine edition of the Poetical Works of Samuel Butler (1893), edited by Reginald Brimley Johnson, with complete bibliographical information. There is a good reprint of Hudibras (edited by Mr A.R. Waller, 1905) in the Cambridge Classics.

[1] Letters written by Eminent Persons ... and Lives of Eminent Men, by John Aubrey, Esq. (2 vols., 1813).