Artesian Wells. These are deep wells, sunk down to some stratum, which is pierced, and the water suddenly rises in the well as high as the source of the spring, which may even be higher than the ground where the well is sunk, and then the water will pour out as a fountain, or flow over. The deep wells in London are of this kind, and the water in them is remarkably pure. The name "Artesian" is derived from the province of Artois, in France, where, it is said, they were first excavated.