The Bishop moves diagonally, backwards and forwards, as far as the squares are empty. It never can change its colour; and as each player has two, they are placed, one on a black square, and the other on a white one, the former called the Black Bishop, the latter the White Bishop.
Knight. The move of the Knight is very peculiar, and difficult to describe. The Knight is the only piece that has the privilege to leap over another piece. It moves one square in a straight line, and one obliquely. Thus, for instance, the White Knight, which at the beginning of a game stands to the right of the White King (see diagram), can at once be moved to the third square of the Bishop, or to the third square of the Rook, thus springing over the intervening Pawns. This movement, being of a complicated nature, should be practised carefully by the student.
The Pawn moves only in a straightforward direction, one square at a time ; but, unlike the pieces, which take an adverse man in the same way they move, the Fawn captures diagonally. It never moves nor takes backwards. Any Pawn can, on starting from its original place, which, as the diagram shows, is the second rank, make two steps, but, in doing so, cannot capture an adverse man, but is liable to be taken in passing the intermediate square by an adverse Pawn, but not by any piece or officer. For example . - your opponent, playing the black, has a Pawn of his on the fourth square, counting upwards from your Queen. You advance your Pawn in front of your King two squares; he has the option of either allowing it to pass or to take it with his Pawn, as if you had moved it only one square, and in thus capturing your Pawn in passing, he must place his own on the third square from your King - not on the fourth.
On Taking An Adverse Man. - The art of capturing an adverse man is by removing it from the board and placing your man on the square which the captured piece or Pawn occupied. All the eight men standing in the first rank of the board take in the same direction in which they move; not so the Pawn, which, as stated above, captures diagonally. Any of your men can be captured by an adverse one, except the King: he is never taken, but checkmated. The King being, as before mentioned, the soul of the game, each player directs his efforts towards attacking the adverse King, and carefully surrounding his own by his officers and Pawns. Any piece or Pawn attacking the adverse King, this is called giving check or checking, and such an attack must be notified by saving, check; whereupon your opponent must attend to this immediately, by either capturing the man that thus attacks or checks him, or by interposing some of his men between the checking-piece and his King, or lastly by removing his King to another square. But, should you be unable to get out of check by either of the above ways, then your King is checkmated, - that is, you have lost the game. Capturing is optional in all cases save one - when your King is in check, and you incapable to move out of check, except by taking the Pawn or piece that checks, you are obliged to do so.