Crescents. The crescent was the symbol of the city of Byzantium, now Constantinople, which the Turks have adopted. This device of the Ottoman Empire it of great antiquity, as appears from several medals, and took its rise from an event related by Stephanus the Geographer, a native of By-Byzantium. He tells us that Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, meeting with mighty difficulties in carrying on the siege of' that city, set the workmen in a very dark night to undermine the walls, that his troops might enter the place without being perceived ; but luckily for the besieged, the moon appearing, discovered the design, which accordingly miscarried. In acknowledgment of this deliverance," says he, "the Byzantines erected a statue to Diana, and thus the crescent became their symbol."