Earth Quakes form the most terrible of all natural phenomena. They make the solid globe itself tremble and quiver beneath our feet, and sometimes to appear to the eye to undulate like the waves of the sea when agitated by the wind. They break up the crust of the earth, elevating if here into hills, depressing it there into valleys; seaming it with rents and fissures, from which often arise products never before known in the district; altering the course of rivers ; producing new shores and beaches ; raising the sea bottom up to become dry land, and depressing the richly wooded land to become henceforth the bottom of the sea; leaving cities that overhung the ocean several miles inland, and submerging other cities again below the waters; altering the distribution of animal life, and occasionally destroying it to a vast extent. Let us mention a case or two by way of illustration : - In 1822, a tract of territory on the Chili coast, above one hundred miles in extent, was raised from two to six feet; and the sea bottom, thus laid bare, emitted for a long time the most intolerable odour from the decay of dead fish, etc. In 1596, on the other hand, several Japanese towns were covered by the sea.