January. This month received the name of January from the ancient Romans. It was adopted and retained by the early Christians, and has ever since been computed as the first month of the year in all the calendars and almanacks of Christendom. It was not originally in the calendar of Romulus, but introduced into it by Numa Pompilius, in the place which had been previously assigned to March. It was 60 called from a double-faced deity, called Janus, who was presumed to look both into the old and new year, and in this month a great festival was held in his honour. At this period the Romans laid aside all old grudges. Clients and freedmen 6ent presents to their patrons, slaves to their masters, and friends and acquaintances to each other; whence the custom of New Year's Gifts, still retained among us, was originally derived.
Among our Saxon ancestors the month of January was called Giulu aftera, which signified the second Goul, Giul, or Yule; or as we should say, the Second Christmas, on account of the month commencing during the joyous season of Christmas festivity, which, as Sir Roger de Coverley good-naturedly observed, could not have been contrived to take place at a happier period.