If a person plays out of his proper turn, or shows a card, it is in the option of either of his adversaries to call that card ; that is, cause him to lay it down at any time in that deal, provided it does not make him revoke ; or either of the adversaries may require of the person who ought to have led, the suit the said adversary may choose.
If a person supposes he has won the trick, and leads again before his partner has played, the adversary may oblige his partner to win it if he can.
If a person leads, and his partner plays before his turn, the adversary's partner may do the same.
If the ace or any other card of a suit is led, and the last player should happen to play out of his turn, whether his partner has any of the suit led or not, he is neither entitled to trump it nor to win the trick, provided you do not make him revoke.
If a revoke happens to be made, the adversaries may add three to their score, or take three tricks from the revoking party, or take down three from their score; and if up, notwithstanding the penalty, they must remain at nine: the revoke takes place of any other score of the game.
If any person revokes, and discovers it before the cards are turned, the adversary may call the highest or lowest of the suit led, or call the card then played, at any time when it does not cause a revoke.
No revoke can be claimed till the trick is turned and quitted, or the party who revoked, or his partner, has played again.
If a revoke is claimed by any person, the adverse party are not to mix their cards, upon forfeiture of the revoke.
No person can claim a revoke after the cards are cut for a new deal.
If any person calls, except at the point of eight, the adversaries may call a new deal, if they think proper.
After the trump-card is turned up, no person must remind his partner to call, on penalty of losing one point.
No honours in the preceding; deal can be set up alter the trump-card is turned up, unless they were before claimed.
If any person calls at eight, and his partner answers, and the adverse party have both thrown down their cards and it appears that the parties calling have not the honours, the adversaries are entitled, if they please, to compel the play to go on, or to have a new deal.
If any person answers without having an honour, the adversary may consult and stand the deal or not.
If any person calls at eight, after he has played, it is in the option of the adverse party to call a new deal.
If any person separates a card from the rest, the adverse party may call it, provided he names it, and proves the separation ; but if he calls a wrong card, he or his partner is liable for once to have the highest or lowest card called in any suit led during that deal.
If any person, supposing the game lost, throws his cards upon the table with their faces upwards, he may not take them up again ; and the adverse party may call any of the cards when they think proper, provided they do not make the party revoke.
If any person is sure of winning every trick in his hand, he may show his cards; but he is then liable to have them called.
If any person omits playing to a trick, and it appears that he has one card more than the rest, it is in the option of the adversary to have a new deal.
Each person, in playing, ought to lay his card before him; and if any of the adver-saries mix their cards with his, his partner may demand each person to lay his card before him, but not to enquire who played any particular card.
Dints to Learners. 1. Lead from your strong suit - or that with which you could make the most tricks - and be cautious how you change suits.
2. Lead through an honour, when you have a good hand - that is, cause your adversary on the left to lay down a good honour - in order that it may be taken up if possible by your partner.
3. Lead through the strong suit of the left-hand adversary, and unto the weak of him who is on the right; but not in trumps, unless you are strong in them.
4. Lead a trump if you have four or five, or a strong hand ; but not if weak.
5. Sequences are eligible leads, and begin with the highest.
6. Follow your partner's lead, but not your adversary's.
7. Do not lead from ace queen or ace knave.
8. Do not lead an ace unless you have the king.
9 Do not lead a thirteenth card unless trumps are out.
10. Do not trump a thirteenth card unless you are last player, or want the lead.
11. The third to play always to put on his best card.
12. When you are in doubt, win the trick.
13. When you lead small trumps, begin with the highest.
14. Do not trump out when your partner is likely to trump a suit.
15. Having only a few small trumps, make them when you can.
16. Make your tricks early, and be cautious how you finesse.
17. Never neglect to make the odd trick when in your power.
18. Never force your adversary with your best card, unless you have the next best.
19. If you have only one card of any suit, and but two or three small trumps, lead the single card.
20. Always endeavour to keep a commanding card to bring in your strong suit.
21. When your partner leads, endeavour to keep the command in his hand.
22. Always keep the card you turned up as long as you conveniently can.
23. If your antagonists are eight, and you have no honour, play your best hump.
24. Always take care to reckon and amend the score at conclusion of each deal; and do not speak or attempt to converse unless between the deals.
A rubber, or rub, consists of three games. The side that has gained two out of the three, wins the rub. If the same side gains, the first and the second game, that concludes the rub, without playing the third.
In short whist, each game consists of five points. If one side wins the game before their adversaries score at all, it is called a treble ; if after they have scored one or two, a double; if after three or four a single. These treble, double, and single games count as 3, 2, and 1, respectively. If the side winning the rub had, for instance, a treble and a single, they count four, which form points of the rub (as theodd tricks and honours form those of the game); the game, if any, won by the other side, is deducted. Besides the points made by the games, the rubber itself counts as two points
Whist is sometimes played by three persons, the fourth place being termed dumby. The cards for dumby are exposed on the table, and played by one who undertakes to act as dumby's partner throughout.