See Alloys.


See Casting.


See Plaster.


See Polishes.


See Cleaning Compounds.

Bronze Powders, Liquid Bronzes, Bronze Substitutes, and Bronzing

Bronze Powders

Gold bronze is a mixture of equal parts of oxide of tin and sulphur, which are heated for some time in an earthen retort. Silver bronze is a mixture of equal parts of bismuth, tin, and mercury, which are fused in a crucible, adding the mercury only when the tin and the bismuth are in fusion. Next reduce to a very fine powder. To apply these bronzes, white of egg, gum arabic, or varnish is used. It is preferable to apply them dry upon one of the above-named mediums serving as size, than to mix them with the liquids themselves, for in the latter case their luster is impaired.

Simple Coloring Of Bronze Powder

In order to impart different colors to bronze powders, such as pale yellow, dark yellow to copper red, the powder is heated with constant stirring in flat iron pans until through the oxidation of the copper—the bronzes consist of the brass powder of an alloy from which the so-called Dutch gold is produced—the desired shade of color is reached. As a rule a very small quantity of fat, wax, or even paraffine is added in this operation. The bronze powders are employed to produce coatings or certain finishes on metals themselves or to give articles of wood, stone, pasteboard, etc., a metallic appearance.

General Directions For Bronzing

The choice of bronze powders is determined by the degree of brilliancy to be obtained. The powder is mixed with strong gum water or isinglass, and laid on with a brush or pencil, almost but not absolutely dry. A piece of soft leather, wrapped around the finger, is dipped into the powder and rubbed over the work; when all this has been covered with the bronze it must be left to dry, and the loose powder is then cleared away with a hair pencil.