This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
In Japan some specialties in metallic alloys are in use of which the composition is as follows:
Shadke consists of copper with from 1 to 10 per cent of gold. Articles made from this alloy are laid in a pickle of blue vitriol, alum, and verdigris, until they acquire a bluish-black color.
Gui-shi-bu-ichi is an alloy of copper containing 30 to 50 per cent of silver. It possesses a peculiar gray shade.
Mokume consists of several compositions. Thus, about 30 gold foils (genuine) are welded together with shadke, copper, silver, and gui-shi-bu-ichi and pierced. The pierced holes are, after firmly hammering together the plates, filled up with the above-named pickle.
The finest Japanese brass consists of 10 parts copper and 8 parts zinc, and is called siachu. The bell metal kara kane is composed of copper 10 parts, tin 10 parts, iron 0.5 part, and zinc 1.5 parts. The copper is first fused, then the remaining metals are added in rotation.