Kwass is a popular drink among the Russian population of Kunzews, prepared as follows: In a big kettle put from 13 to 15 quarts of water, and bring to a boil, and when in active ebullition pour in 500 grams of malt. Let boil for 20 minutes, remove from the fire, let cool down, and strain off. The liquid is now put into a clean keg or barrel, 30 grams (about an ounce) of best compressed yeast added along with about 600 grams (20 ounces) of sugar, and the cask is put in a warm place to ferment. As soon as bubbles of carbonic gas are detected on the surface of the liquid, it is a signal that the latter is ready for bottling. In each of the bottles, which should be strong and clean, put one big raisin, fill, cork, and wire down. The bottles should be placed on the side, and in the coolest place available—best, on ice. The liquor is ready for drinking in from 2 to 3 days, and is said to be most palatable.

" Braga."—Braga is a liquid of milky-turbidity, resembling cafe au lait in color, and forming a considerable precipitate if left alone. When shaken it sparkles and a little gas escapes. Its taste is more or less acid, possessing a pleasant flavor.

About 35 parts of crushed millet, to which a little wheat flour is added, are placed in a large kettle. On this about 400 parts of water are poured. The mixture is stirred well and boiled for 3 hours. After settling for 1 hour the lost water is renewed and the boiling continued for another 10 hours. A viscous mass remains in the kettle, which substance is spread upon large tables to cool. After it is perfectly cool, it is stirred with water in a wooden trough and left to ferment for 8 hours. This pulp is sifted, mixed with a little water, and after an hour the braga is ready for sale. The taste is a little sweetish at first, but becomes more and more sourish in time. Fermentation begins only in the trough.