I

Copal varnish......   15 parts

Drying oil.........     5 parts

Turpentine (spirits).    3 parts

Oil of turpentine. ...     2 parts

Liquefied glue......     5 parts

Melt all together on a water bath until well mixed, and then add 10 parts slaked lime.

II

Mix 100 parts finely powdered white litharge with 50 parts dry white lead, knead together 3 parts linseed oil varnish and 1 part copal varnish into a firm dough. Coat the side to be attached with this, removing the superfluous cement. It will dry quickly and become very hard.

III

Copal varnish...... 15 parts

Linseed-oil varnish . 5 parts

Raw turpentine..... 3 parts

Oil of turpentine.... 2 parts Carpenters' glue, dissolved in water ... 5 parts Precipitated chalk .. 10 parts

IV

Mastic gum........ 1 part

Litharge, lead...... 2 parts

White lead......... 1 part

Linseed oil......... 3 parts

Melt together to a homogeneous mass. Apply hot. To make a thorough and reliable job, the letters should be heated to at least the temperature of the cement.