Pure Italian hemp is cut up fine; 1 part of this and 0.5 part of coarse, cleaned wool are carded together and formed into wadding. This wadding is packed in linen and felted by treatment with hot acid vapors. The resulting felt is washed out, dried, and impregnated with a substance whose composition varies according to the leather to be produced. Thus, good sole leather, for instance, is produced according to a Danish patent, in the following manner: Mix together 50 parts of boiled linseed oil; 20 parts of colophony; 25 parts of French turpentine; 10 parts of glycerine, and 10 parts of vegetable wax, and heat over a water bath with some ammonia water. When the mass has become homogeneous, add 25 parts of glue, soaked in water, as well as a casein solution, which latter is produced by dissolving 50 parts, by weight, of moist, freshly precipitated casein in a saturated solution of 16 parts of borax and adding 10 parts of potassium bichromate, the last two also by weight. Finally, mineral dyestuffs as well as antiseptic substances may be added to the mass. The whole mixture is now boiled until it becomes sticky and the felt is impregnated with it by immersion. The impregnated felt is dried for 24 hours at an ordinary temperature; next laid into a solution of aluminum acetate and finally dried completely, dyed, and pressed between hot rollers.

Black Dye for Tanned Leather

This recipe takes the place of the ill-smelling iron blacking, and is not injurious to the leather. Gallnuts, pulverized, 150 parts; vitriol, green or black, 10 parts; rock candy, 60 parts; alum, 15 parts; vinegar, 250 parts; cooking salt, 20 parts. Dissolve with 4,000 parts of distilled water.

Boil this solution slowly and the blacking is done. When it has cooled and settled, pour through linen, thus obtaining a pure, good leather blacking.

Cracked Leather

The badly cracked and fissured carriage surface greets the painter on every hand. The following is the recipe for filling up and facing over such a surface: Finest pumice stone, 6 parts; lampblack (in bulk), 1 part; common roughstuff filler, 3 parts. Mix to stiff paste in good coach japan, 5 parts; hard drying rubbing varnish, 1 part. Thin to a brushing consistency with turpentine, and apply 1 coat per day. Put on 2 coats of this filler and then 2 coats of ordinary roughstuff. Rub with lump pumice stone and water. This process does not equal burning off in getting permanently rid of the cracks, but when the price of painting forbids burning off, it serves as an effective substitute. Upon a job that is well cared for, and not subjected to too exacting service, this filler will secrete the cracks and fissures for from 3 to 5 months.