Black pitch, 1 part; Japanese wax, 2 parts; rosin, 1.5 parts; Damar rosin, 1 part, melted together and mixed with turpentine oil, 1 part. II.—Heavy black printers' ink, 3 parts; rosin, 1 part; wax, 1 part.

For electro-etching, the following ground is recommended: Wax, 4 parts; asphalt, 4 parts; pitch, 1 part.

If absolute surety is required respecting the resistance of the etching-ground to the action of the etching fluids, several etching-grounds are put on, one over the other; first (for instance), a solution of rubber in benzol, then a spirituous shellac solution, and a third stratum of asphalt dissolved in turpentine oil.

If the etching is to be of different degrees of depth, the places where it is to be faint are stopped out with varnish, after they are deep enough, and the object is put back into the bath for further etching.

For putting on a design before the etching, the following method may be used: Cover the metal plate, tin plate for example, with a colored or colorless spirit varnish; after drying, cover this, in a dark room, with a solution of gelatin, 5 parts, and red potassium chromate, 1 part, in water, 100 parts; or with a solution of albumen, 2 parts; ammonium bichromate, 2 parts, in water, 200 parts. After drying, put the plate, covered with a stencil, in a copying or printing frame, and expose to light. The sensitive gelatin stratum will become insoluble at the places exposed. Place in water, and the gelatin will be dissolved at the places covered by the stencil; dry, and remove the spirit varnish from the places with spirit, then put into the etching fluid.