Plants are as sensitive to excessively minute quantities of nutrient substances, such as salts of potassium, in the soil, as they are to minute quantities of poisonous substances. Poisons are said to be infinitely more sensitive reagents for the presence of certain metallic salts than the most delicate chemical, the statement having been made that a trace of copper which might be obtained by distilling in a copper retort is fatal to the white and yellow lupin, the castor-oil plant, and spirogyra. Coupin has found salts of silver, mercury, copper, and cadmium especially fatal to plants. With copper sulphate the limit of sensitiveness is placed at 1 in 700,000,000. Devaux asserts that both phanerogams and cryptogams are poisoned by solutions of salts of lead or copper diluted to the extent of 1 in 10,000,000, or less.

As a result of a series of experiments, Schloesing stated that the nitrification of ammonium salts is not for all plants a necessary preliminary to the absorption of nitrogen by the plant. While for some plants, as for example buckwheat, the preferable form of the food material i» that of a nitrate, others, for instance, tropeolum, thrive even better when the nitrogen is presented to them in an ammoniacal form.