The paper can be safely handled 8 feet from the source of light, which may be Welsbach gas light, covered with post-office paper, incandescent light, ordinary gas light, kerosene light, or reduced daylight, the latter produced by covering a window with one or more thicknesses of orange post-office paper, as necessitated by strength of light. Expose by holding the printing frame close to gas, lamp, or incandescent light, or to subdued daylight. Artificial light is recommended in preference to daylight because of uniformity, and it being in consequence easier to judge the proper length of time to expose.


The amount of exposure required varies with the strength of the light; it takes about the same time with an ordinary gas burner and an incandescent light; a Welsbach gas light requires only about one-half as much time as the ordinary gas burner, and a kerosene light of ordinary size about three times as much as an ordinary gas burner. If daylight is to be used the window should be covered with post-office paper, in which a sub-window about 1 foot square for making the exposure may be made. Cover this window first with a piece of white tissue paper, then with a piece of black cloth or post-office paper to exclude the white light when not wanted. Make exposure according to strength of light at from 1 to 2 feet away from the tissue paper. Keep the printing frame when artificial light is used constantly in motion during exposure.

Timing the Exposure

The time necessary for exposing is regulated by density of negative and strength of light. The further away the negative is from the source of light at the time of exposure the weaker the light; hence, in order to secure uniformity in exposure it is desirable always to make the exposure at a given distance from the light used. With a negative of medium density exposed 1 foot from an ordinary gas burner, from 1 to 10 minutes' exposure is required.

A test to ascertain the length of exposure should be made. Once the proper amount of exposure is ascertained with a given light, the amount of exposure required can be easily approximated by making subsequent exposures at the same distance from the same light; the only difference that it would then be necessary to make would be to allow for variation in density of different negatives.


Allow the prints to remain in the fixing solution 10 to 20 minutes, when they should be removed to a tray containing clear water.


Wash 1 hour in running water, or in 10 or 12 changes of clear water, allowing prints to soak 2 to 3 minutes in each change.